Template:When two vowels go walking, the first one does the talking/table

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Revision as of 13:56, 26 December 2018 by Ghoti (talk | contribs) (Normal case: Here we consider phonograms that either are at the end of the word, or are followed by a consonant different from 'r'.)

Normal case

Here we consider phonograms that either are at the end of the word, or are followed by a consonant different from 'r'.

Two vowels Rule Phoneme As a phonogram Examples Exceptions (as a phonogram)
aa False /ɑː/ Useless: too few examples salaam
ae Mixed results /iː/ Useful, but with a lot of exceptions aecium - aesthete

/eɪ/: Mae - sundae /e/: aestheteAmE

ai True /eɪ/ Useful Adelaide, afraid, aid, aim, available, brain, campaign, chain, claim, complain, contain, daily, detail, entertain, explain, fail, faith, gain, hail, Haiti, jail, mail, main, Maine, maintain, paid, pain, paint, rail, rain, raise, remain, retail, snail, Spain, stain, straight, train, trait, wait said
ao N/A Two syllables N/A /eɪɒ/: chaos
/iːəʊ/: karaoke
/əʊ/: pharaoh
au False /ɔː/ Useful cause - author /ɑː/: aunt - laugh

/ɒ/: austerity - Australia

ea Mixed results /iː/ Useful, but with a lot of exceptions beach - bead - beat - bleach - breathe - cheat - clean - cream - creature - deal - dream - each - easy - eat - feature - heal - heat - increase - jeans - lead (verb) - leader - leaf - lean - leave - meal - mean - meat - pea - peach - peak - please - reach - read - repeat - reason - reveal - scream - sea - seal - seat - steal - steam - stream - teach - team - treat - weak /e/: ahead - already - bread - breakfast - breast - breath - cleanse - dead - deaf - dealt - death - dread - dreadful - feather - head - header - health - heather - heavy - instead - jealous - lead (metal) - leapt - leather - meadow - meant - measure - pheasant - pleasant - pleasure - read (past tense and past participle) - ready - spread - steady - sweat - thread - threat - threaten - treachery - tread - treadmill - treasure - wealth - weapon - weather

/eɪ/: break - great - steak

ee True /iː/ Useful, almost no exceptions fee - keep - sleep /i:/ or /ɪ/: been
ei Only after "c" /siː, eɪ/ Complex rule /siː/: ceiling - conceive - receipt

/eɪ/: eight - neighbour - weigh

eo False N/A Too few examples /iː/: people

/e/: leopard
/ɪəʊ/: video

eu False /(j)uː/ Useful, few examples euphoria - neutral
ia
cia, sia, tia False /ə/ Useful commercial - controversial - crucial - presidential - politician - specialist
other N/A Two syllables NA

/iːə/: Bolivia - brilliant - civilian
/aɪə/: trial
/ɪə/: material

ie Mixed results /aɪ, iː/ Complex rule /aɪ/: lies - fried

/iː/: chief - field

ii N/A N/A
io False /ə/ Useful nation - vision idiot - onion - violet
iu N/A Two syllables /iːə/: actinium - calcium - Celsius - genius - lithium - magnesium - potassium
oa True /əʊ/ Useful approach, boat, coach, coal, coat, coast, float, foam, goal, goat, load, loan, oats, road, roast, throat, toast
oe True /əʊ/ Useful tornadoes - potatoes - toe shoe - does (verb) - canoe
oi False /ɔɪ/ Useful choice
oo False /uː/ Useful, many exceptions school - goose /ʊ/: foot - good
ou False /aʊ/ Useful, many exceptions about - mouth soup - through; could - should - would; country - double; soul
ua N/A Two syllables /uːə/: actual - conceptual
/uːə/: manual
ue True /(j)uː/ Useful blue - clue - continue - due - value
ui True /(j)uː/ Useful, many exceptions bruise - fruit - suite

/ɪ/: biscuit - circuit
/uːɪ/: altruism - fluid - ruin - suicide
/wɪ/: anguish - liquid - penguin - quick

uo N/A N/A
uu N/A /jʊə/ Useful vacuum - continuum - triduum - residuum /juːʌ/: duumvir

/ʊə/: menstruum

Summary of useful phonograms

This table includes "w" and "y" as the second element of a phonogram

Two vowels Phoneme As a phonogram Examples Exceptions
ai /eɪ/ Useful train said
au /ɔː/ Useful cause aunt - laugh
aw /ɔː/ Useful law
ay /eɪ/ Useful say
ea /iː, e/ Useful, but with a lot of exceptions /iː/ speak /e/: head and many others

/eɪ/: only break - great - steak

ee /iː/ Useful keep been
ei /iː, eɪ/ /iː/ after c
/eɪ/ elsewhere
/iː/: ceiling

/eɪ/: eight

height - foreign
eu /(j)uː/ Useful, few examples euphoria - neutral
ew /(j)uː/ Useful crew - few - new sew
ey /eɪ/ Useful, few examples prey
ia: cia, sia, tia /ə/ Useful commercial
ie /aɪ, iː/ /aɪ/ or /ɪ/ as plural or past tense
/iː/ elsewhere
/aɪ/: lies - fried
/ɪ/: cities - studies
/iː/: chief
friend
io /ə/ Useful nation - vision idiot - onion - violet
oa /əʊ/ Useful goat
oe /əʊ/ Useful toe shoe - does - canoe
oi /ɔɪ/ Useful choice
oo /uː/ Useful, many exceptions goose /ʊ/: foot
ou /aʊ/ Useful, many exceptions about soup - could - double - soul
ow /aʊ/ Useful, many exceptions how row
oy /ɔɪ/ Useful toy
ue /(j)uː/ Useful blue
ui /(j)uː/ Useful, many exceptions fruit biscuit - fluid - penguin

Before r

Before r the vowels never actually say their name (except in the case of /aɪə/); however there are useful phonograms

Two vowels + r Phoneme As a phonogram Examples Exceptions
aar /ɑː/ Useless: too few examples aardvark - bazaar
aer /eə/ Useless: too few examples aerobic - aeroplane - aeronautical
air /eə/ Useful air - chair - dairy - fair - fairy - hair - pair - stair
aor N/A /eɪɔːr/: aorta
aur /ɔː/ Useful only because it coincides with first table; too few examples dinosaur - aurora
ear /ɪə/ Useful, but with a lot of exceptions beard - clear - dear - ear - fear - gear /gɪər/ - hear - near - rear - tear (teardrop) /eə/: bear - pear - swear - tear (verb) - wear
eer /ɪə/ Useful, few examples beer - career - engineer - pioneer - volunteer comparatives: freer
eir N/A Few examples /ɪə/: weird

/eə/: heir - their

eor N/A Two different syllables meteor - theory - theorem
eur /(j)ʊə/ Useful, few examples Europe - neuron - neurotic /ə/: amateur
iar /aɪə/ Few examples, many exceptions diary - friar - liar caviar - peculiar - patriarch - subsidiary
ier /aɪə, ɪə/ Complex rule /aɪə/: plier

/ɪə/: tier

Comparatives: /iːə/ easier
iir N/A
ior N/A Two syllables /iːə/ junior - senior - superior - warrior
iur N/A
oar /ɔː/ Useful aboard - boar - board - coarse - oar - roar
oer N/A Two syllables coerce - doer - goer
oir N/A choir - memoir
oor N/A Few examples /ɔː/: door - floor - poor

/ʊə/: poor

our /aʊə/ Useful, many exceptions hour - our - sour /ɔː/: pour
uar N/A /ɔː/: quart

/ɑː/: guard

uer /(j)uːə/ Useful arguer - bluer
uir /waɪə/ Only preceded by "q" enquire - require /wɪ, wɜː/: squirrel
uor N/A fluorine - liquor
uur N/A