Difference between revisions of "Weak form"

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{{Phonetics}}
 
 
'''Weak forms''' occur in [[stress-timed language]]s such as [[English]] when the word itself is not [[stress]]ed.  This makes such words tricky for untrained [[listen]]ers to identify as they may well be expecting the stressed [[strong form]]. Normally the weak form is identical to the strong form, with the vowel changed by [[schwa]] /ə/. For example the strong form of "could" is /kʊd/ and its weak form is /kəd/.
 
'''Weak forms''' occur in [[stress-timed language]]s such as [[English]] when the word itself is not [[stress]]ed.  This makes such words tricky for untrained [[listen]]ers to identify as they may well be expecting the stressed [[strong form]]. Normally the weak form is identical to the strong form, with the vowel changed by [[schwa]] /ə/. For example the strong form of "could" is /kʊd/ and its weak form is /kəd/.
  
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==Examples==
 
==Examples==
 
+
{{IPA}}
The main words with weak forms in [[Received Pronunciation]] are:
+
The main words with weak forms are:
  
 
=== A ===
 
=== A ===
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=== B ===
 
=== B ===
be, but
+
be /biː, bɪ/ - but /bʌt, bət/
  
 
=== C ===
 
=== C ===
can, could
+
can /kæn, kən/ - could /kʊd, kəd/
 +
 
 +
Informal shortened forms of "because":
 +
*UK: cos, ‘cause /kɒz, kəz/
 +
*US: ‘cause, cos /kɔːz, kʌz, kəz/
  
 
=== D ===
 
=== D ===
do, does
+
do /duː, dʊ, də/ - does /dʌz, dəz/
  
 
=== F ===
 
=== F ===
for, from  
+
for /fɔːr, fər/ - from /frɒm, frʌm{{ame}}, frəm/
  
 
=== H ===
 
=== H ===
had, has, have, he, her, him, his
+
had /hæd, həd, əd/ - has - have - he - her - him - his
  
 
=== J ===
 
=== J ===
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=== O ===
 
=== O ===
of
+
[[Pronunciation exercises: "of" vs "off"|of]], or /ər{{ame}}, ɔːr/, our / ˈaʊər, ɑːr/
  
 
=== S ===
 
=== S ===
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=== T ===
 
=== T ===
than, that, the, them, there, to
+
than, that, them, there
 +
 
 +
====the====
 +
Strong form: /ˈðiː/
 +
 
 +
Weak form
 +
:before a consonant: /ðə/
 +
:before a vowel: /ðiː, ðɪ/
 +
 
 +
====to====
 +
Strong form: /tuː/
 +
 
 +
Weak form
 +
:before a consonant: /tə/
 +
:before a vowel /tuː, tʊ/
  
 
=== U ===
 
=== U ===
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=== W ===
 
=== W ===
was, we, were, who, would
+
was, we, were, what /wɒt, wʌt{{ame}}, wət{{ame}}/, would
  
 
=== Y ===
 
=== Y ===
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[[category:listening]]
+
[[category:Listening]]  
[[category:English skills]]
 
 
[[Category:Pronunciation]]
 
[[Category:Pronunciation]]
 
[[category:Phonetics]]
 
[[category:Phonetics]]

Latest revision as of 15:16, 18 October 2016

Weak forms occur in stress-timed languages such as English when the word itself is not stressed. This makes such words tricky for untrained listeners to identify as they may well be expecting the stressed strong form. Normally the weak form is identical to the strong form, with the vowel changed by schwa /ə/. For example the strong form of "could" is /kʊd/ and its weak form is /kəd/.

Native speakers sometimes think they are using the language badly when they use weak forms but this is not the case. They are a perfectly natural part of the English language, and the schwa is the most common sound in the language.

Teachers, especially, should continue to use weak forms. If teachers only use strong forms when they speak to students they will be giving them a completely erroneous impression of the way the spoken language sounds, almost as bad as pronouncing the "t" in "listen". This is a very bad form of teacher talk which teachers need to be very much aware of, as the result of teachers constantly using strong forms will be students who are able to understand the teacher but nobody else.

Examples[edit]

IPA vowels
æ ɑː
trap father - start
e
dress face square
ɪ ɪə
kit fleece near
ɒ əʊ ɔː
lot goat taught
ʊ ʊə
foot goose mature
juː jʊə
cute cure
ʌ ə ɜː
strut comma nurse
ɔɪ
price mouth choice
IPA consonants
Normal sound: /b, d, f, g, h, k, l, m, n, p, r, s, t, v, w, z/
 ʃ  ŋ
show church sing
ʒ  j 
usual judge you
θ ð s
think that see
IPA Stress
ˈ Primary stress
hotel /həʊˈtel/
ˌ Secondary stress
understand
/ˌʌndərˈstænd/
IPA Syllabification
. nitrate /ˈnaɪ.treɪt/, night-rate /ˈnaɪt.reɪt/

The main words with weak forms are:

A[edit]

a /eɪ, ə/ - am /æm, əm, m/ - an /æn, ən/ - and /ænd, ənd, ən, n/ - are /ɑr, ər/ - as /æz, əz/ - at /æt, ət, ɪtAmE/

B[edit]

be /biː, bɪ/ - but /bʌt, bət/

C[edit]

can /kæn, kən/ - could /kʊd, kəd/

Informal shortened forms of "because":

  • UK: cos, ‘cause /kɒz, kəz/
  • US: ‘cause, cos /kɔːz, kʌz, kəz/

D[edit]

do /duː, dʊ, də/ - does /dʌz, dəz/

F[edit]

for /fɔːr, fər/ - from /frɒm, frʌmAmE, frəm/

H[edit]

had /hæd, həd, əd/ - has - have - he - her - him - his

J[edit]

just

M[edit]

me, must

O[edit]

of, or /ərAmE, ɔːr/, our / ˈaʊər, ɑːr/

S[edit]

shall, she, should, some

T[edit]

than, that, them, there

the[edit]

Strong form: /ˈðiː/

Weak form

before a consonant: /ðə/
before a vowel: /ðiː, ðɪ/

to[edit]

Strong form: /tuː/

Weak form

before a consonant: /tə/
before a vowel /tuː, tʊ/

U[edit]

us

W[edit]

was, we, were, what /wɒt, wʌtAmE, wətAmE/, would

Y[edit]

you

Negatives don't have weak forms[edit]

Negative contractions don't have weak forms. For example, "could" has the weak form /kəd/ but "couldn't" only has the form /ˈkʊdənt/. Similary "are" has the weak form /ər/ but "aren't" only has the form /ɑːrnt/ (identical to "aunt" in Received Pronunciation).


See also[edit]