Difference between revisions of "Perfect"

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'''Perfect''' is the name given to those forms of the verb constructed with HAVE and the [[Past participle]] ([[Third form]]) of the verb. These forms are often known as [[tense]]s, though many modern writers prefer to consider them as [[aspect]]s; The four perfect aspect forms, with examples,  are:
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'''Perfect''' is an English [[aspect]].  This aspect uses [[auxiliary have]] and the [[past participle]]The four perfect aspect forms are as follows:
  
1. The '''[[Present Perfect]]''': ''I have worked, you have gone''
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#The [[Present perfect]]: ''I have worked here for over twenty years.'' - ''You have gone''
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#The [[Present perfect progressive]] (or present perfect continuous): ''He has been working.'' - ''They have been living.''
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#The [[Past perfect]]: ''We had worked it all out.'' - ''I had spoken to him on several occasions.''
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#The [[Past perfect progressive]] (or past perfect continuous): ''I had been working all morning on that.'' - ''He had been living there until he got that new place.''
  
2. The '''[[Present Perfect Progressive]]''' (or: Present Perfect Continuous): ''he has been working, they have been living''
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Some writers call #1 the ''Present Perfect Simple'' and #3 the ''Past Perfect Simple'', but most prefer to use the word 'Simple' only for tenses that are both non-progressive and non-perfect, i.e. the [[Present Simple]] and [[Past Simple]].
  
3. The '''[[Past Perfect]]''': ''we had worked, I had spoken''
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The perfect tenses in English are used to relate two time points or periods: 1. the time at which the situation denoted occurred or began, and 2. a later time point or period. It has been suggested<ref>[[Michael Lewis|Lewis, Michael]] (1985) ''[[The English Verb]]'', Hove: LTP</ref> that 'Retrospective' would be a more appropriate name for these forms.
  
4. The '''[[Past Perfect Progressive]]''' (or: Past Perfect Continuous): ''I had been working , He had been living''.
 
 
Some writers call #1 the ''Present Perfect Simple'' and #3 the ''Past Perfect Simple'', but most prefer to use the word 'Simple' only for tenses that are both non-progressive and non-perfect, i.e the [[Present Simple]] and [[Past Simple]].
 
 
The perfect tenses in English are used to relate two time points or periods: (1) the time at which the situation denoted occurred or began, and (2) a later time point or period. It has been suggested <ref>Lewis, Michael (1985) ''The English Verb'', Hove: LTP</ref> that 'Retrospective' would be a more appropriate name for these forms
 
 
==References==
 
==References==
 
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<references/>
Lewis, Michael (1985) ''The English Verb'', Hove: LTP
 
 
 
  
  
==External links==
 
  
{{stub}}
 
  
[[category:Grammar]]
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[[category:aspects]]

Revision as of 06:08, 16 March 2020

Perfect is an English aspect. This aspect uses auxiliary have and the past participle. The four perfect aspect forms are as follows:

  1. The Present perfect: I have worked here for over twenty years. - You have gone
  2. The Present perfect progressive (or present perfect continuous): He has been working. - They have been living.
  3. The Past perfect: We had worked it all out. - I had spoken to him on several occasions.
  4. The Past perfect progressive (or past perfect continuous): I had been working all morning on that. - He had been living there until he got that new place.

Some writers call #1 the Present Perfect Simple and #3 the Past Perfect Simple, but most prefer to use the word 'Simple' only for tenses that are both non-progressive and non-perfect, i.e. the Present Simple and Past Simple.

The perfect tenses in English are used to relate two time points or periods: 1. the time at which the situation denoted occurred or began, and 2. a later time point or period. It has been suggested[1] that 'Retrospective' would be a more appropriate name for these forms.

References

  1. Lewis, Michael (1985) The English Verb, Hove: LTP