Difference between revisions of "-ed"

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(Voiced and unvoiced: For the summary below, it's vowel, with one l)
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==Homophones==
 
==Homophones==
 
aloud/allowed - band/banned - board/bored - bold/bowled - build/billed - duct/ducked - find/fined - guest/guessed - least/leased - mist/missed - ode/owed - past/passed - paste/paced - road/rowed - side/sighed - tide/tied - toad/towed - tract/tracked - wade/weighed - world/whirled
 
aloud/allowed - band/banned - board/bored - bold/bowled - build/billed - duct/ducked - find/fined - guest/guessed - least/leased - mist/missed - ode/owed - past/passed - paste/paced - road/rowed - side/sighed - tide/tied - toad/towed - tract/tracked - wade/weighed - world/whirled
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==Teaching tips==
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Depending on the formality of each class setting, there are two excellent ways of making students physically aware of the sounds involved here:
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*The first, and by far the most “illustrative”, is to get the students to cover their ears with the palms of their hands and repeat after the teacher a series of sounds, e.g., /n/, /v/, /ei/ and /l/ (corresponding to ''open'', ''live'', ''play'' and ''call'') and to elicit what they notice those sounds have in common. If they don’t come up with the fact that they “hear” a vibration, no problem. Now do the same with, e.g., /sh/, /p/, /k/, and /s/ (corresponding to ''push'', ''help'', ''like'' and ''reduce''). Again ask what those sounds have in common. If by now they still don’t get it, get them to compare the two groups of sounds, and by now someone will be able to point it out and everyone else will concur.
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*The second way of doing it, slightly less effective, but possibly also more “acceptable”, especially in those more formal class settings, is to get the students to grasp – gently – their Adam’s apples between forefinger and thumb and make those same sounds and feel the slight tingle/vibration (and/or absence of same, depending on whether the sounds are voiced or not).
 +
 
==Anticipated pronunciation difficulties depending on L1==
 
==Anticipated pronunciation difficulties depending on L1==
 
Preconceived ideas and other interferences from [[L1]] obviously interfere in many cases with how students perceive - and pronounce - sounds/words in English. The following sections aims to point out some of the most typical difficulties teachers and students may encounter regarding pronunciation.
 
Preconceived ideas and other interferences from [[L1]] obviously interfere in many cases with how students perceive - and pronounce - sounds/words in English. The following sections aims to point out some of the most typical difficulties teachers and students may encounter regarding pronunciation.

Revision as of 22:20, 21 January 2014

Past tense pronunciation refers to the pronunciation of regular verbs in the past or past participle form - that is, verbs which end in "ed". There are three possible sounds which correspond to the written "ed": /ɪd/, /t/ and /d/.

Although the rules may seem difficult, they are, in fact, quite easy to teach and the following notes suggest how they might be presented in class.

Voiced and unvoiced

Before we begin we must consider “voiced” and “unvoiced” sounds.

Voiced sounds

Description

First let’s identify some “voiced” sounds. Put your fingers on your throat and say the words open, call, seem and agree. You should feel some vibration in your throat at the end of these words.

Enumeration

Voiced sounds can be described or memorized. For some people memorization is easier than description or deduction.

The voiced sounds in English are all vowels and /b/, /d/, /ð/, /dʒ/, /g/, /j/, /l/, /m/, /n/, /ŋ/, /r/, /v/, /w/, /z/ and /ʒ/.

Unvoiced

Description

Now some “unvoiced” sounds. Say push, help, like and reduce. You should feel no vibration in your throat at the end of these words.

Enumeration

Voiceless sounds can be described or memorized. For some people memorization is easier than description or deduction.

The voiceless sounds in English are /f/, /k/, /p/, /s/, /ʃ/, /t/, /tʃ/ and /θ/.

Voiced pronunciation of "-ed"

For all verbs that end with voiced sounds and the “ed” is pronounced /d/ (except for the voiced consonant /d/).

So now say the same words and just add the /d/ sound: opened, called, seemed and agreed.

Voiceless pronunciation of "-ed"

For all verbs that end with unvoiced consonants and the “ed” is pronounced /t/ (except for the voiceless consonant /t/).

Say the following: pushed, helped, liked and reduced. A /t/ sound is added at the end of these verbs.

Regular verbs ending with /t/ and /d/

What about words ending in “t” and “d”? When a verb already ends with the letter “t” or “d”, it is impossible to add another “d” or “t”. Try it.

Can you say “want t” or “include d”?

Consequently when a word ends with either a “d” or a “t” we have to pronounce the full “ed” sound as a separate syllable: /-dɪd/ or /-tɪd/. This is also true of regular verbs ending in "te" or "de" - don't forget that the final "e" of most words in English is NOT pronounced.

Say – wanted, lifted, needed, computed, estimated, and investigated.

The good news is that the difference between the “t” and “d” sound is not that great. The important thing is to differentiate between the “t” “d” pair on the one hand, and the set of verbs ending “ed”.

Practice

I opened the door, invited her in and asked her what she wanted. She walked in as if she owned the place and, when she replied, she indicated that she wanted to talk about buying my island.

I was very surprised and stated that my island was not for sale and that I had not planned to sell it. She persisted and insisted that I had responded without thinking and offered me 2,000,000 pounds.

I became annoyed and ordered her out. I demanded that she departed my island and I informed her that she wasn’t expected back.

Examples

Practice experimenting with these words:

Examples of regular verbs with the /t/ sound

ask, brush, cook, crash, develop, distinguish, extinguish, finish, hook, hop, hope, increase, jump, lack, lick, look, network, pick, produce, push, reach, reduce, stop, walk, watch, wish.

The past tense of "ask" is pronounced either /æskt/ or /æst/.

The past tense of "jump" is pronounced either /dʒʌmpt/ or /dʒʌmt/.

Examples of regular verbs with the /d/ sound

agree, allow, apply, approve, argue, believe, clean, deny, earn, explain, gain, improve, move, open, organise, phone, pull, receive, renew, resolve, show, stay, travel, turn, warn.

Examples of regular verbs with the /ɪd/ sound

  • Finishing in "t" or "te": act, activate, adapt, compete, create, defeat, estimate, exist, infect, invite, lift, list, pollute, promote, reject, repeat, respect, result, shift, suggest, support, test, unite, want;
  • Finishing in "d" or "de": add, blend, decide, defend, demand, divide, end, extend, include, invade, need, pretend, provide, succeed.

Homophones

aloud/allowed - band/banned - board/bored - bold/bowled - build/billed - duct/ducked - find/fined - guest/guessed - least/leased - mist/missed - ode/owed - past/passed - paste/paced - road/rowed - side/sighed - tide/tied - toad/towed - tract/tracked - wade/weighed - world/whirled

Teaching tips

Depending on the formality of each class setting, there are two excellent ways of making students physically aware of the sounds involved here:

  • The first, and by far the most “illustrative”, is to get the students to cover their ears with the palms of their hands and repeat after the teacher a series of sounds, e.g., /n/, /v/, /ei/ and /l/ (corresponding to open, live, play and call) and to elicit what they notice those sounds have in common. If they don’t come up with the fact that they “hear” a vibration, no problem. Now do the same with, e.g., /sh/, /p/, /k/, and /s/ (corresponding to push, help, like and reduce). Again ask what those sounds have in common. If by now they still don’t get it, get them to compare the two groups of sounds, and by now someone will be able to point it out and everyone else will concur.
  • The second way of doing it, slightly less effective, but possibly also more “acceptable”, especially in those more formal class settings, is to get the students to grasp – gently – their Adam’s apples between forefinger and thumb and make those same sounds and feel the slight tingle/vibration (and/or absence of same, depending on whether the sounds are voiced or not).

Anticipated pronunciation difficulties depending on L1

Preconceived ideas and other interferences from L1 obviously interfere in many cases with how students perceive - and pronounce - sounds/words in English. The following sections aims to point out some of the most typical difficulties teachers and students may encounter regarding pronunciation.

Spanish

Many Spanish speakers pronounce the "-ed" ending as a separate syllable, regardless of the ending sound of the verb. Special effort must be made so that the students don't pronounce */ˈɑːskɪd/, */ˈpʊʃɪd/, */ɪkˈspleɪnɪd/ or */ˈrəʊɪd/ (for asked, pushed, explained and rowed).

See also

References


External links