There are many words in English that are derived from Latin, about 30% of English vocabulary.
Latin teaching still today relies on the outdated and disproven grammar translation method.
The first grammarians to study English were Latin grammarians, so they tried to apply what they understood about Latin rules and terminology to English. The result didn't quite work because English is a Germanic language whereas Latin is a romance language. Latin grammarians came to the conclusion that Latin was linguistically perfect whereas English was somehow defective. The result is some odd terminology still used in English grammar, e.g. in Latin the gerund and present participle are different forms, whereas in English they are always the same and may be more clearly referred to as ing words or "gerund participles".
See also Ancient Greek.