IPA phonetic symbol 〚m̩〛

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əm

rhythm [ˈrɪðəm]

rhythm [ˈrɪðm̩]

The IPA phonetic symbol [m̩][1] (lower case "m" with a small vertical line below) represents syllabic /m/, a syllable with no vowel (syllabic consonant), as in "rhythm" [ˈrɪðm̩] or "system" [ˈsɪstm̩]. In a broad notation [m̩] is /əm/ and most dictionaries prefer that notation: /ˈrɪðəm, ˈsɪstəm/.

Common words[edit]

  • bottom, freedom, item, maximum, mechanism, minimum, problem, symptom, system

[əm] vs [əm][edit]

Below we can see the pronunciation of /əm/ depending on the previous consonant according to the Cambridge Dictionaries Online (Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary, aka British English section, CALD).[2] Most other dictionaries always use /əm/.

Consonant Example CALD UK CALD US
/ð/ rhythm /ˈrɪð.əm/ /ˈrɪð.əm/
/z/ mechanism /ˈmek.ə.nɪ.zəm/ /ˈmek.ə.nɪ.zəm/
/ʃ/ nasturtium /nəˈstɜː.ʃəm// /nəˈstɝː.ʃəm/
/r/ marjoram /ˈmɑː.dʒər.əm/ /ˈmɑːr.dʒɚ.əm/
/s/ awesome, wholesome /ˈɔː.səm, ˈhəʊl.səm/ /ˈɑː.səm, ˈhoʊl.səm/
/t/ bottom, system /ˈbɒt.əm, ˈsɪs.təm/ /ˈbɑː.t̬əm, ˈsɪs.təm/
/b/ album /ˈæl.bəm/ /ˈæl.bəm/
/d/ freedom /ˈfriː.dəm/ /ˈfriː.dəm/
/dʒ/ stratagem /ˈstræt.ə.dʒəm/ /ˈstræt̬.ə.dʒəm/
/g/ amalgam /əˈmæl.ɡəm/ /əˈmæl.ɡəm/
/k/ modicum /ˈmɒd.ɪ.kəm/ /ˈmɑː.dɪ.kəm/
/l/ problem /ˈprɒb.ləm/ /ˈprɑː.bləm/
/m/ minimum /ˈmɪn.ɪ.məm/ /ˈmɪn.ɪ.məm/
/n/ venom /ˈvenəm/ /ˈvenəm/
/θ/ anthem /ˈæn.θəm/ /ˈæn.θəm/
/v/ ovum /ˈəʊ.vəm/ /ˈoʊ.vəm/

Unicode and HTML[edit]

Unicode: U+0329 Combining vertical line below

HTML:

Hexadecimal: m&#x329;
Decimal: m&#809;

Notes and references[edit]

  1. For technical reasons double brackets appear on the page title.
  2. Cambridge Dictionaries Online, Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary.

See also[edit]