IPA phonetic symbol 〚m̩〛

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Revision as of 21:26, 26 June 2015 by Ghoti (talk | contribs) ([əm] vs [əm]: mechanism)

Underdot

rhythm [ˈrɪðṃ]

Strict IPA

rhythm [ˈrɪðm̩]

IPA vowels
æ ɑː
trap father - start
e
dress face square
ɪ ɪə
kit fleece near
ɒ əʊ ɔː
lot goat taught
ʊ ʊə
foot goose mature
juː jʊə
cute cure
ʌ ə ɜː
strut comma nurse
ɔɪ
price mouth choice
IPA consonants
Normal sound: /b, d, f, g, h, k, l, m, n, p, r, s, t, v, w, z/
 ʃ  ŋ
show church sing
ʒ  j 
usual judge you
θ ð s
think that see
IPA Stress
ˈ Primary stress
hotel /həʊˈtel/
ˌ Secondary stress
understand
/ˌʌndərˈstænd/
IPA Syllabification
. nitrate /ˈnaɪ.treɪt/, night-rate /ˈnaɪt.reɪt/

The IPA phonetic symbol [m̩][1] (lowercase "m" with a small vertical line below) represents syllabic /m/, a syllable with no vowel, as in "rhythm" [ˈrɪðm̩] or "system" [ˈsɪstm̩]. In a broad notation [m̩] is /əm/ and most dictionaries prefer that notation: /ˈrɪðəm, ˈsɪstəm/.

Sometimes an underdot is used instead of a vertical line: ṃ.

[əm] vs [əm]

Below we can see the pronunciation of /əm/ depending on the previous consonant according to the Cambridge Dictionaries Online (Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary, aka British English section, CALD).[2] Most other dictionaries always use /əm/.

Consonant Example CALD UK CALD US
/θ/ rhythm [ˈrɪð.əm] [ˈrɪð.əm]
/z/ mechanism [ˈmek.ə.nɪ.zəm] [ˈmek.ə.nɪ.zəm]
/s/ awesome, wholesome [ˈɔː.səm, ˈhəʊl.səm] [ˈɑː.səm, ˈhoʊl.səm]
/t/ bottom, system [ˈbɒt.əm], [ˈsɪs.təm] [ˈbɑː.t̬əm], [ˈsɪs.təm]
/b/ album [ˈæl.bəm] [ˈæl.bəm]
/d/ freedom [ˈfriː.dəm] [ˈfriː.dəm]
/g/ amalgam [əˈmæl.ɡəm] [əˈmæl.ɡəm]
/k/ modicum [ˈmɒd.ɪ.kəm] [ˈmɑː.dɪ.kəm]
/l/ problem [ˈprɒb.ləm] [ˈprɑː.bləm]
/m/ minimum [ˈmɪn.ɪ.məm] [ˈmɪn.ɪ.məm]
/n/ venom [ˈvenəm] [ˈvenəm]
/v/ ovum [ˈəʊ.vəm] [ˈoʊ.vəm]
Temporary table
/ʃ/
/dʒ/ stratagem
/tʃ
/r/ marjoram
/j/
/w/

Unicode and HTML

Vertical line m̩

Unicode: U+0329 Combining vertical line below

HTML: m̩ m̩

Dot below ṃ

Unicode: U+1E43 Latin small letter M with dot below

HTML: ṃ ṃ

See also

Notes

  1. For technical reasons double brackets appear on the page title.
  2. Cambridge Dictionaries Online, Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary.