Difference between revisions of "IPA phoneme /l/"

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{{IPA symbol|l|IPA phoneme /l/|look /lʊk/}}
 
{{IPA symbol|l|IPA phoneme /l/|look /lʊk/}}
In English, both in [[Received Pronunciation]] and in [[General American]], the [[IPA]] [[phonetic symbol]] '''/l/''' (lowercase L) corresponds to the initial [[consonant]] sound in words like "look" and "last" and the final one in "school" and "girl".
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In English, both in [[Received Pronunciation]] and in [[General American]], the [[IPA]] [[phonetic symbol]] '''/l/''' (lower case L) corresponds to the initial [[consonant]] sound in words like "look" and "last" and the final one in "school" and "girl".
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When /l/ occurs at the end of a [[syllable]] or before a consonant, the tongue usually comes towards the back of the mouth.<ref>''Encyclopaedia Britannica'', [https://www.britannica.com/topic/velarization Velarization].</ref> Some speech pronunciation coaches call it a "[[IPA phonetic symbol 〚ɫ〛|dark L]]".
  
 
In [[Estuary English]] /l/ in final position is a vowel. For example ''milk'' is pronounced [mɪok] and ''middle'' is [ˈmɪdo].
 
In [[Estuary English]] /l/ in final position is a vowel. For example ''milk'' is pronounced [mɪok] and ''middle'' is [ˈmɪdo].
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==Common words==
 
==Common words==
 
Initial pronunciation of '''/l/''':  
 
Initial pronunciation of '''/l/''':  
*large - last - let - life - like - live - long - lot - look - love
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*large - last - late - leave - let - life - like - little - live - long - look - lot - love
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Medial pronunciation of '''/l/''':
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*As "l": also - child - clear - help - include - old - only - place - problem - world
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*As "ll": actually - allow - challenge - college - dollar - follow - really - village
  
 
Final pronunciation of '''/l/''':  
 
Final pronunciation of '''/l/''':  
*As "l": control - feel - level - school - total - travel - until
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*As "l": control - deal - feel - level - school - several - social - total - travel - until
*As "ll": all - call - small - still - tell - well - will
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*As "ll": all - call - cell - fall - full - kill - sell - skill - small - still - tell - wall - well - will
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*With [[magic e]]: file - mile - module - role - rule - sale - smile - style - while - whole
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*With [[silent e]]: able - available - couple - example - little - people - possible - table
  
 
==Anticipated pronunciation difficulties depending on L1==
 
==Anticipated pronunciation difficulties depending on L1==
 
Preconceived ideas and other interferences from [[L1]] obviously interfere in many cases with how students perceive - and pronounce - sounds/words in English. The following section aims to point out some of the most typical difficulties teachers and students may encounter regarding pronunciation.
 
Preconceived ideas and other interferences from [[L1]] obviously interfere in many cases with how students perceive - and pronounce - sounds/words in English. The following section aims to point out some of the most typical difficulties teachers and students may encounter regarding pronunciation.
  
===Spanish===
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=== Chinese ===
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Chinese speakers have difficulty with the dark l sound in general.  As for the light l, Southern Chinese often mispronounce /l/ as a nasal /n/ sound but most Northern Chinese have no issues with the light l.
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=== Japanese ===
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Japanese speakers often confuse /l/ and /r/.
  
 
==See also==
 
==See also==
 
*[[IPA phonetic symbol 〚l̩〛|IPA phonetic symbol <nowiki>[l̩]</nowiki>]] (syllabic /l/)
 
*[[IPA phonetic symbol 〚l̩〛|IPA phonetic symbol <nowiki>[l̩]</nowiki>]] (syllabic /l/)
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*[[IPA phonetic symbol 〚ɫ〛|IPA phonetic symbol <nowiki>[ɫ]</nowiki>]] (velarised /l/)
 
*[[Lesson:L vs R]]
 
*[[Lesson:L vs R]]
*[[Pronunciation of the letter L]]
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*[[Decoding the letter L]]
  
 
==References==
 
==References==
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*[http://www.bl.uk/learning/langlit/sounds/case-studies/received-pronunciation/consonants/ British Library: Learning - Sounds Familiar?]
 
*[http://www.bl.uk/learning/langlit/sounds/case-studies/received-pronunciation/consonants/ British Library: Learning - Sounds Familiar?]
  
[[Category:IPA phonetic symbols|Consonant /l/]]
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[[category:iPA phonetic symbols|Consonant /l/]]
[[Category:Consonant phonemes|l]]
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[[category:consonant phonemes|l]]

Latest revision as of 07:23, 16 March 2020

l

look /lʊk/

In English, both in Received Pronunciation and in General American, the IPA phonetic symbol /l/ (lower case L) corresponds to the initial consonant sound in words like "look" and "last" and the final one in "school" and "girl".

When /l/ occurs at the end of a syllable or before a consonant, the tongue usually comes towards the back of the mouth.[1] Some speech pronunciation coaches call it a "dark L".

In Estuary English /l/ in final position is a vowel. For example milk is pronounced [mɪok] and middle is [ˈmɪdo].

Common words[edit]

Initial pronunciation of /l/:

  • large - last - late - leave - let - life - like - little - live - long - look - lot - love

Medial pronunciation of /l/:

  • As "l": also - child - clear - help - include - old - only - place - problem - world
  • As "ll": actually - allow - challenge - college - dollar - follow - really - village

Final pronunciation of /l/:

  • As "l": control - deal - feel - level - school - several - social - total - travel - until
  • As "ll": all - call - cell - fall - full - kill - sell - skill - small - still - tell - wall - well - will
  • With magic e: file - mile - module - role - rule - sale - smile - style - while - whole
  • With silent e: able - available - couple - example - little - people - possible - table

Anticipated pronunciation difficulties depending on L1[edit]

Preconceived ideas and other interferences from L1 obviously interfere in many cases with how students perceive - and pronounce - sounds/words in English. The following section aims to point out some of the most typical difficulties teachers and students may encounter regarding pronunciation.

Chinese[edit]

Chinese speakers have difficulty with the dark l sound in general. As for the light l, Southern Chinese often mispronounce /l/ as a nasal /n/ sound but most Northern Chinese have no issues with the light l.

Japanese[edit]

Japanese speakers often confuse /l/ and /r/.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. Encyclopaedia Britannica, Velarization.

External links[edit]