IPA phoneme /dʒ/
- Initial pronunciation of /dʒ/
- as j: jam - James - Jane - jeans - John - July - jump - June - just
- as ge/gi/gy: gentleman - gender - gene - general - George - gesture - giant - gym
- Mid-position pronunciation of /dʒ/
- as j: enjoy - injure - project
- as dj: adjust
- as ge/gi/gy: agency - apologise/apologize - biology - danger - imagine - refrigerator - urgent
- as dge: budget
- Final pronunciation of /dʒ/
- as ge: age - charge - huge - orange - page - stage
- as dge: badge - edge - fridge - judge
- genes - jeans; Jim - gym;
/dʒ/ spelled with "d"
- education /ˌedʒʊˈkeɪʃən/
- gradual /ˈɡrædʒʊəl/
- graduate (noun) /ˈɡrædʒʊət/
- graduate (verb) /ˈɡrædʒʊeɪt/
- individual /ˌɪndɪˈvɪdʒʊəl/
- procedure /prəˈsiːdʒər/
- soldier /ˈsəʊldʒər/
Anticipated pronunciation difficulties depending on L1
Preconceived ideas and other interferences from L1 obviously interfere in many cases with how students perceive - and pronounce - sounds/words in English. The following sections aims to point out some of the most typical difficulties teachers and students may encounter regarding pronunciation.
As /dʒ/ doesn't exist in Spanish, many Spanish speakers pronounce the initial "j" in words like "job" and "jet" like /j/, i.e. they do not distinguish very well between "yet" and "jet" or "yob" and "job". Other sounds that they may confuse this sound with are /tʃ/, a sound which does exist in Spanish, and two other sounds which don't: /ʃ/ or /ʒ/, especially as final sounds.
The sentence "güi don nid nou eduqueishon" appears several times in Google, with several spellings for each word. You can find, for example, eduqueichon, edukeichon, edukeison, ediukeishon or ediuqueishon. However, the more "correct" transcription eyuqueichon at the time of writing appeared only once (in a Twitter message). Other combinations (such as ellukeishon) were not present. This confirms that Spanish speakers don't know that education as a /dʒ/ sound.
- In case you wondered, it means We don't need no education.
- "s" for /ʃ/ is used only by Spaniards.