IPA phoneme /dʒ/

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Revision as of 21:49, 14 February 2014 by Ghoti (talk | contribs) (Spanish)

In Received Pronunciation and in General American, the IPA phonetic symbol /dʒ/ corresponds to the initial consonant sound in words like "job", and "jet" and the final one in "page" and "change".

Common words

Initial pronunciation of /dʒ/
  • as j: jam - James - Jane - jeans - John - July - jump - June - just
  • as ge/gi/gy: gentleman - gender - gene - general - George - gesture - giant - gym
Mid-position pronunciation of /dʒ/
  • as j: enjoy - injure - project
  • as dj: adjust
  • as ge/gi/gy: agency - apologise/apologize - biology - danger - imagine - refrigerator - urgent
  • as dge: budget
  • Oddity: as ga: margarine /ˌmɑːrdʒəˈriːn/BrE /ˈmɑːrdʒərən/AmE
Final pronunciation of /dʒ/
  • as ge: age - charge - huge - orange - page - stage
  • as dge: badge - edge - fridge - judge


  • genes - jeans; Jim - gym;

/dʒ/ spelled with "d"

  • education /ˌedʒʊˈkeɪʃən/
  • gradual /ˈɡrædʒʊəl/
  • graduate (noun) /ˈɡrædʒʊət/
  • graduate (verb) /ˈɡrædʒʊeɪt/
  • individual /ˌɪndɪˈvɪdʒʊəl/
  • procedure /prəˈsiːdʒər/
  • soldier /ˈsəʊldʒər/

Anticipated pronunciation difficulties depending on L1

Preconceived ideas and other interferences from L1 obviously interfere in many cases with how students perceive - and pronounce - sounds/words in English. The following sections aims to point out some of the most typical difficulties teachers and students may encounter regarding pronunciation.


As /dʒ/ doesn't exist in Spanish, many Spanish speakers pronounce the initial "j" in words like "job" and "jet" like /j/, i.e. they do not distinguish very well between "yet" and "jet" or "yob" and "job". Other sounds that they may confuse this sound with are /tʃ/, a sound which does exist in Spanish, and two other sounds which don't: /ʃ/ or /ʒ/, especially as final sounds.

Unbelievably some Spanish speakers pronounce "g" as /h/ (actually [x]), just like in Spanish. It is not as uncommon as it should be to hear [ɪnˈtelɪxənt] (from inteligente).

The sentence "güi don nid nou eduqueishon"[1] appears several times in Google, with several spellings for each word. You can find, for example, eduqueichon, edukeichon, edukeison[2], ediukeishon or ediuqueishon. However, the more "correct" transcription eyuqueichon at the time of writing appeared only once (in a Twitter message). Other combinations (such as ellukeishon) were not present. This confirms that Spanish speakers don't know that education as a /dʒ/ sound.

See also

External links


  1. In case you wondered, it means We don't need no education.
  2. "s" for /ʃ/ is used only by Spaniards.