Difference between revisions of "IPA phoneme /dʒ/"

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{{IPA symbol|ʤ|IPA phoneme /dʒ/|judge /ʤʌʤ/|Ligature<br>(obsolete)}}
 
{{IPA symbol|ʤ|IPA phoneme /dʒ/|judge /ʤʌʤ/|Ligature<br>(obsolete)}}
 
{{IPA symbol|d͡ʒ|IPA phoneme /dʒ/|judge /d͡ʒʌd͡ʒ/|Strict IPA<br>&nbsp;}}
 
{{IPA symbol|d͡ʒ|IPA phoneme /dʒ/|judge /d͡ʒʌd͡ʒ/|Strict IPA<br>&nbsp;}}
 
{{IPA symbol|dʒ|IPA phoneme /dʒ/|judge /dʒʌdʒ/|Standard<br>&nbsp;}}
 
{{IPA symbol|dʒ|IPA phoneme /dʒ/|judge /dʒʌdʒ/|Standard<br>&nbsp;}}
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In [[Received Pronunciation]] and in [[General American]], the [[IPA]] [[phonetic symbol]] '''/dʒ/''' corresponds to the initial [[consonant]] sound in words like "job", and "jet" and the final one in "page" and "change".
 
In [[Received Pronunciation]] and in [[General American]], the [[IPA]] [[phonetic symbol]] '''/dʒ/''' corresponds to the initial [[consonant]] sound in words like "job", and "jet" and the final one in "page" and "change".
 +
 +
/dʒ/ is a [[Voiced and unvoiced sounds|voiced]] consonant; its unvoiced counterpart is [[IPA phoneme /tʃ/]].
 +
 +
/dʒ/ is an affricate; its fricative counterpart is [[IPA phoneme /ʒ/]].
  
 
==Common words==
 
==Common words==
 
{{IPA}}
 
{{IPA}}
 
;Initial pronunciation of '''/dʒ/'''
 
;Initial pronunciation of '''/dʒ/'''
* as '''j''': jam - James - Jane - jeans - John - July - jump - June - just
+
* as '''j''': January - jam - Jamaica - James - Jane - Japan - jeans - job - John - join - joke - journey - July - jump - judge - June - just
* as '''ge'''/'''gi'''/'''gy''': gentleman - gender - gene - general - George - gesture - giant - gym
+
* as '''ge'''/'''gi'''/'''gy''': gentleman - gender - gene - general - generate - generation - genetic - Germany - George - Georgia - gesture - giant - gym
 +
:See [[Decoding the letter G]] for exceptions.
  
 
;Mid-position pronunciation of '''/dʒ/'''
 
;Mid-position pronunciation of '''/dʒ/'''
* as '''j''': enjoy - injure - project
+
* as '''j''': enjoy - injure - major - majority - object - project - reject - subject
 
* as '''dj''': adjust
 
* as '''dj''': adjust
* as '''ge'''/'''gi'''/'''gy''': agency - apologise/apologize - biology - danger - imagine - refrigerator - urgent
+
* as '''ge'''/'''gi'''/'''gy''': agency - Algeria - Angela - apologise{{brSp}} - apologize - Argentina - Belgium - biology - danger - Egypt - energy - engineer - imagine - Los Angeles - Niger - Nigeria - refrigerator - original - region - Roger - strategy - technology - urgent - Virginia
 +
 
 
* as '''dge''': budget
 
* as '''dge''': budget
  
* Oddity: as '''ga''': margarine /ˌmɑːrdʒəˈriːn/{{bre}} /ˈmɑːrdʒərən/{{ame}}
+
* Oddity: as '''ga''': margarine /ˌmɑːrdʒəˈriːn,{{bre}} ˈmɑːrdʒərən/{{ame}}
  
 
;Final pronunciation of '''/dʒ/'''
 
;Final pronunciation of '''/dʒ/'''
* as '''ge''': age - charge - huge - orange - page - stage
+
* as '''ge''': advantage - age - average - change - charge - college  - huge - image - language - large - manage - orange - page - range - stage
* as '''dge''': badge - edge - fridge - judge
+
* as '''dge''': badge - edge - fridge - judge - knowledge
  
 
Homophones:
 
Homophones:
 
*genes - jeans; Jim - gym;
 
*genes - jeans; Jim - gym;
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 +
==Less common words==
 +
*genus - germ - gin - ginger - gist - gypsum - gypsy
  
 
== /dʒ/ spelled with "d" ==
 
== /dʒ/ spelled with "d" ==
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* procedure /prəˈsiːdʒər/
 
* procedure /prəˈsiːdʒər/
 
* soldier /ˈsəʊldʒər/
 
* soldier /ˈsəʊldʒər/
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===/d/ or /dʒ/===
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* cordial (friendly) /ˈkɔːrdʒəl/{{ame}} /ˈkɔːrdiːəl/{{bre}}
 +
* fraudulent /ˈfrɔːdʒələnt/ {{ame}} /ˈfrɔːdjələnt/{{bre}}
 +
 +
== /dʒ/ spelled with "ch" ==
 +
*sandwich: /ˈsænwɪtʃ, ˈsænwɪdʒ/
 +
*spinach: /ˈspɪnɪtʃ, ˈspɪnɪdʒ/
 +
*Greenwich /ˈgrɪnɪdʒ, ˈgrɪnɪtʃ, ˈgrenɪtʃ, ˈgrenɪdʒ/
 +
*Norwich /ˈnɒrɪdʒ, ˈnɒrɪtʃ/
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 +
== /dʒ/ spelled with "t" ==
 +
*congratulations: /kənˌgrætʃəˈleɪʃənz/{{bre}} {{ame}} /kənˌgrædʒəˈleɪʃənz/{{ame}}&nbsp;<ref>Dictionary.com, [http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/congratulation congratulation]</ref> The pronunciation with /dʒ/, even if it is recognized by Random House is regarded by some as informal or sloppy.<ref>Charles Harrington Elster, ''The Big Book of Beastly Mispronunciations: The Complete Opinionated Guide for the Careful Speaker'', 1999, page 104. Available in [https://books.google.com/books?id=YtojrMr0Ft4C&pg=PA104&lpg=PA104&dq=congratulations Google Books].</ref>
  
 
==Anticipated pronunciation difficulties depending on L1==
 
==Anticipated pronunciation difficulties depending on L1==
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As '''/dʒ/''' doesn't exist in Spanish, many Spanish speakers pronounce the initial '''"j"''' in words like "job" and "jet" like '''[[IPA phoneme /j/|/j/]]''', i.e. they do not distinguish very well between "yet" and "jet" or "yob" and "job". Other sounds that they may confuse this sound with are '''[[IPA phoneme /tʃ/|/tʃ/]]''', a sound which does exist in Spanish, and two other sounds which don't: '''[[IPA phoneme /ʃ/|/ʃ/]]''' or '''[[IPA phoneme /ʒ/|/ʒ/]]''', especially as final sounds.
 
As '''/dʒ/''' doesn't exist in Spanish, many Spanish speakers pronounce the initial '''"j"''' in words like "job" and "jet" like '''[[IPA phoneme /j/|/j/]]''', i.e. they do not distinguish very well between "yet" and "jet" or "yob" and "job". Other sounds that they may confuse this sound with are '''[[IPA phoneme /tʃ/|/tʃ/]]''', a sound which does exist in Spanish, and two other sounds which don't: '''[[IPA phoneme /ʃ/|/ʃ/]]''' or '''[[IPA phoneme /ʒ/|/ʒ/]]''', especially as final sounds.
  
Unbelievably some Spanish speakers pronounce "g" as [[IPA phoneme|/h/]] (actually [[IPA phonetic symbol 〚x〛|<nowiki>[x]</nowiki>]]), just like in Spanish. It is not as uncommon as it should be to hear [ɪnˈtelɪxənt] (from ''inteligente).''
+
Unbelievably some Spanish speakers pronounce "g" as [[IPA phoneme /h/|/h/]] (actually [[IPA phonetic symbol 〚x〛|<nowiki>[x]</nowiki>]]), just like in Spanish. It is not as uncommon as it should be to hear {{wrong+|[ɪnˈtelɪxənt]|"Intelligent" is pronounced /ɪnˈt{{e}}lɪdʒənt/}} (from ''inteligente).''
  
 
The sentence "güi don nid nou eduqueishon"<ref>In case you wondered, it means ''We don't need no education''.</ref> appears several times in Google, with several spellings for each word. You can find, for example, ''eduqueichon, edukeichon, edukeison,<ref>"s" for  /ʃ/ is used only by Spaniards.</ref> eduqueiyon,<ref>"y" for /ʃ/ is used by Argentinians and Uruguayans.</ref> ediukeishon'' or ''ediuqueishon''. Also, taking into account the actual accent of the song, ''educaichon'' or ''educaishon''. However, the more "correct" transcription ''eyuqueichon'' at the time of writing appeared only once (in a Twitter message). Other combinations (such as ''ellukeishon'' or ''eyucaichon)'' were not present. This confirms that Spanish speakers don't know that ''education'' has a /dʒ/ sound.
 
The sentence "güi don nid nou eduqueishon"<ref>In case you wondered, it means ''We don't need no education''.</ref> appears several times in Google, with several spellings for each word. You can find, for example, ''eduqueichon, edukeichon, edukeison,<ref>"s" for  /ʃ/ is used only by Spaniards.</ref> eduqueiyon,<ref>"y" for /ʃ/ is used by Argentinians and Uruguayans.</ref> ediukeishon'' or ''ediuqueishon''. Also, taking into account the actual accent of the song, ''educaichon'' or ''educaishon''. However, the more "correct" transcription ''eyuqueichon'' at the time of writing appeared only once (in a Twitter message). Other combinations (such as ''ellukeishon'' or ''eyucaichon)'' were not present. This confirms that Spanish speakers don't know that ''education'' has a /dʒ/ sound.
  
 
===Argentinian Spanish===
 
===Argentinian Spanish===
Most Argentinians pronounce "ll" and "y" as /ʃ/, while some pronounce them like /dʒ/ or /ʒ/. In any case, they confuse these three sounds in any position, not just final.<ref>Search for "Shack el Destripador" or "Shenifer Lopez".</ref> Moreover, since standard pronunciation of Spanish "y" is similar to /j/ they will also confuse /j/ and /ʃ/.<ref>Search for "Nueva Shork" or "shu tub" (YouTube).</ref>
+
Most Argentinians pronounce "ll" and "y" as /ʃ/, while some pronounce them like /dʒ/ or /ʒ/. In any case, they confuse these three sounds in any position, not just final.<ref>Search for "Shack el Destripador" (Jack the Ripper) or "Shenifer Lopez".</ref> Moreover, since standard pronunciation of Spanish "y" is similar to /j/ some students may also confuse /j/ and /ʃ/.<ref>Search for "Nueva Shork" or "shu tub" (YouTube).</ref> For Argentinians English /j/ is like Spanish "hi" as in "hielo" [ˈjelo].
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==Notes and references==
 +
<references/>
  
 
==See also==
 
==See also==
*[[Pronunciation]]
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*[[Decoding the letter J]]
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*[[Decoding the letter G]]
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*[[Decoding the letter D]]
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*[[Pronunciation exercises: /dʒ/ vs /tʃ/]]
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*[[Pronunciation exercises: /dʒ/ vs /ʒ/]]
 +
*[[Pronunciation exercises: /dʒ/ vs /j/]]
  
 
==External links==
 
==External links==
 
*[http://www.bl.uk/learning/langlit/sounds/case-studies/received-pronunciation/consonants/ British Library: Learning - Sounds Familiar?]
 
*[http://www.bl.uk/learning/langlit/sounds/case-studies/received-pronunciation/consonants/ British Library: Learning - Sounds Familiar?]
 
==Notes==
 
<references/>
 
  
 
[[Category:IPA phonetic symbols|Consonant /dz/]]
 
[[Category:IPA phonetic symbols|Consonant /dz/]]
 
[[Category:Consonant phonemes|dz]]
 
[[Category:Consonant phonemes|dz]]

Latest revision as of 17:16, 15 May 2018

Ligature
(obsolete)

ʤ

judge /ʤʌʤ/

Strict IPA
 

d͡ʒ

judge /d͡ʒʌd͡ʒ/

Standard
 

judge /dʒʌdʒ/

In Received Pronunciation and in General American, the IPA phonetic symbol /dʒ/ corresponds to the initial consonant sound in words like "job", and "jet" and the final one in "page" and "change".

/dʒ/ is a voiced consonant; its unvoiced counterpart is IPA phoneme /tʃ/.

/dʒ/ is an affricate; its fricative counterpart is IPA phoneme /ʒ/.

Common words[edit]

IPA vowels
æ ɑː
trap father - start
e
dress face square
ɪ ɪə
kit fleece near
ɒ əʊ ɔː
lot goat taught
ʊ ʊə
foot goose mature
juː jʊə
cute cure
ʌ ə ɜː
strut comma nurse
ɔɪ
price mouth choice
IPA consonants
Normal sound: /b, d, f, g, h, k, l, m, n, p, r, s, t, v, w, z/
 ʃ  ŋ
show church sing
ʒ  j 
usual judge you
θ ð s
think that see
IPA Stress
ˈ Primary stress
hotel /həʊˈtel/
ˌ Secondary stress
understand
/ˌʌndərˈstænd/
IPA Syllabification
. nitrate /ˈnaɪ.treɪt/, night-rate /ˈnaɪt.reɪt/
Initial pronunciation of /dʒ/
  • as j: January - jam - Jamaica - James - Jane - Japan - jeans - job - John - join - joke - journey - July - jump - judge - June - just
  • as ge/gi/gy: gentleman - gender - gene - general - generate - generation - genetic - Germany - George - Georgia - gesture - giant - gym
See Decoding the letter G for exceptions.
Mid-position pronunciation of /dʒ/
  • as j: enjoy - injure - major - majority - object - project - reject - subject
  • as dj: adjust
  • as ge/gi/gy: agency - Algeria - Angela - apologiseBrE - apologize - Argentina - Belgium - biology - danger - Egypt - energy - engineer - imagine - Los Angeles - Niger - Nigeria - refrigerator - original - region - Roger - strategy - technology - urgent - Virginia
  • as dge: budget
  • Oddity: as ga: margarine /ˌmɑːrdʒəˈriːn,BrE ˈmɑːrdʒərən/AmE
Final pronunciation of /dʒ/
  • as ge: advantage - age - average - change - charge - college - huge - image - language - large - manage - orange - page - range - stage
  • as dge: badge - edge - fridge - judge - knowledge

Homophones:

  • genes - jeans; Jim - gym;

Less common words[edit]

  • genus - germ - gin - ginger - gist - gypsum - gypsy

/dʒ/ spelled with "d"[edit]

  • education /ˌedʒʊˈkeɪʃən/
  • gradual /ˈɡrædʒʊəl/
  • graduate (noun) /ˈɡrædʒʊət/
  • graduate (verb) /ˈɡrædʒʊeɪt/
  • individual /ˌɪndɪˈvɪdʒʊəl/
  • procedure /prəˈsiːdʒər/
  • soldier /ˈsəʊldʒər/

/d/ or /dʒ/[edit]

  • cordial (friendly) /ˈkɔːrdʒəl/AmE /ˈkɔːrdiːəl/BrE
  • fraudulent /ˈfrɔːdʒələnt/ AmE /ˈfrɔːdjələnt/BrE

/dʒ/ spelled with "ch"[edit]

  • sandwich: /ˈsænwɪtʃ, ˈsænwɪdʒ/
  • spinach: /ˈspɪnɪtʃ, ˈspɪnɪdʒ/
  • Greenwich /ˈgrɪnɪdʒ, ˈgrɪnɪtʃ, ˈgrenɪtʃ, ˈgrenɪdʒ/
  • Norwich /ˈnɒrɪdʒ, ˈnɒrɪtʃ/

/dʒ/ spelled with "t"[edit]

  • congratulations: /kənˌgrætʃəˈleɪʃənz/BrE AmE /kənˌgrædʒəˈleɪʃənz/AmE [1] The pronunciation with /dʒ/, even if it is recognized by Random House is regarded by some as informal or sloppy.[2]

Anticipated pronunciation difficulties depending on L1[edit]

Preconceived ideas and other interferences from L1 obviously interfere in many cases with how students perceive - and pronounce - sounds/words in English. The following sections aims to point out some of the most typical difficulties teachers and students may encounter regarding pronunciation.

Spanish[edit]

As /dʒ/ doesn't exist in Spanish, many Spanish speakers pronounce the initial "j" in words like "job" and "jet" like /j/, i.e. they do not distinguish very well between "yet" and "jet" or "yob" and "job". Other sounds that they may confuse this sound with are /tʃ/, a sound which does exist in Spanish, and two other sounds which don't: /ʃ/ or /ʒ/, especially as final sounds.

Unbelievably some Spanish speakers pronounce "g" as /h/ (actually [x]), just like in Spanish. It is not as uncommon as it should be to hear *[ɪnˈtelɪxənt] (from inteligente).

The sentence "güi don nid nou eduqueishon"[3] appears several times in Google, with several spellings for each word. You can find, for example, eduqueichon, edukeichon, edukeison,[4] eduqueiyon,[5] ediukeishon or ediuqueishon. Also, taking into account the actual accent of the song, educaichon or educaishon. However, the more "correct" transcription eyuqueichon at the time of writing appeared only once (in a Twitter message). Other combinations (such as ellukeishon or eyucaichon) were not present. This confirms that Spanish speakers don't know that education has a /dʒ/ sound.

Argentinian Spanish[edit]

Most Argentinians pronounce "ll" and "y" as /ʃ/, while some pronounce them like /dʒ/ or /ʒ/. In any case, they confuse these three sounds in any position, not just final.[6] Moreover, since standard pronunciation of Spanish "y" is similar to /j/ some students may also confuse /j/ and /ʃ/.[7] For Argentinians English /j/ is like Spanish "hi" as in "hielo" [ˈjelo].

Notes and references[edit]

  1. Dictionary.com, congratulation
  2. Charles Harrington Elster, The Big Book of Beastly Mispronunciations: The Complete Opinionated Guide for the Careful Speaker, 1999, page 104. Available in Google Books.
  3. In case you wondered, it means We don't need no education.
  4. "s" for /ʃ/ is used only by Spaniards.
  5. "y" for /ʃ/ is used by Argentinians and Uruguayans.
  6. Search for "Shack el Destripador" (Jack the Ripper) or "Shenifer Lopez".
  7. Search for "Nueva Shork" or "shu tub" (YouTube).

See also[edit]

External links[edit]