Editing IPA phoneme /dʒ/

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{{IPA symbol|ʤ|IPA phoneme /dʒ/|judge /ʤʌʤ/|Ligature<br>(obsolete)}}
 
{{IPA symbol|d͡ʒ|IPA phoneme /dʒ/|judge /d͡ʒʌd͡ʒ/|Strict IPA<br>&nbsp;}}
 
{{IPA symbol|dʒ|IPA phoneme /dʒ/|judge /dʒʌdʒ/|Standard<br>&nbsp;}}
 
 
In [[Received Pronunciation]] and in [[General American]], the [[IPA]] [[phonetic symbol]] '''/dʒ/''' corresponds to the initial [[consonant]] sound in words like "job", and "jet" and the final one in "page" and "change".
 
In [[Received Pronunciation]] and in [[General American]], the [[IPA]] [[phonetic symbol]] '''/dʒ/''' corresponds to the initial [[consonant]] sound in words like "job", and "jet" and the final one in "page" and "change".
 
/dʒ/ is a [[Voiced and unvoiced sounds|voiced]] consonant; its unvoiced counterpart is [[IPA phoneme /tʃ/]].
 
 
/dʒ/ is an affricate; its fricative counterpart is [[IPA phoneme /ʒ/]].
 
  
 
==Common words==
 
==Common words==
{{IPA}}
 
 
;Initial pronunciation of '''/dʒ/'''
 
;Initial pronunciation of '''/dʒ/'''
* as '''j''': January - jam - Jamaica - James - Jane - Japan - jeans - job - John - join - joke - journey - July - jump - judge - June - just
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* as '''j''': jam - James - Jane - jeans - John - July - jump - June - just
* as '''ge'''/'''gi'''/'''gy''': gentleman - gender - gene - general - generate - generation - genetic - Germany - George - Georgia - gesture - giant - gym
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* as '''ge'''/'''gi'''/'''gy''': gentleman - gender - gene - general - George - gesture - giant - gym
:See [[Decoding the letter G]] for exceptions.
 
  
 
;Mid-position pronunciation of '''/dʒ/'''
 
;Mid-position pronunciation of '''/dʒ/'''
* as '''j''': enjoy - injure - major - majority - object - project - reject - subject
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* as '''j''': enjoy - injure - project
 
* as '''dj''': adjust
 
* as '''dj''': adjust
* as '''ge'''/'''gi'''/'''gy''': agency - Algeria - Angela - apologise{{brSp}} - apologize - Argentina - Belgium - biology - danger - Egypt - energy - engineer - imagine - Los Angeles - Niger - Nigeria - refrigerator - original - region - Roger - strategy - technology - urgent - Virginia
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* as '''ge'''/'''gi'''/'''gy''': agency - apologise/apologize - biology - danger - imagine - refrigerator - urgent
 
 
 
* as '''dge''': budget
 
* as '''dge''': budget
  
* Oddity: as '''ga''': margarine /ˌmɑːrdʒəˈriːn,{{bre}} ˈmɑːrdʒərən/{{ame}}
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* Oddity: as '''ga''': margarine /ˌmɑːrdʒəˈriːn/{{bre}} /ˈmɑːrdʒərən/{{ame}}
  
 
;Final pronunciation of '''/dʒ/'''
 
;Final pronunciation of '''/dʒ/'''
* as '''ge''': advantage - age - average - change - charge - college  - huge - image - language - large - manage - orange - page - range - stage
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* as '''ge''': age - charge - huge - orange - page - stage
* as '''dge''': badge - edge - fridge - judge - knowledge
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* as '''dge''': badge - edge - fridge - judge
  
 
Homophones:
 
Homophones:
 
*genes - jeans; Jim - gym;
 
*genes - jeans; Jim - gym;
 
==Less common words==
 
*genus - germ - gin - ginger - gist - gypsum - gypsy
 
  
 
== /dʒ/ spelled with "d" ==
 
== /dʒ/ spelled with "d" ==
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* procedure /prəˈsiːdʒər/
 
* procedure /prəˈsiːdʒər/
 
* soldier /ˈsəʊldʒər/
 
* soldier /ˈsəʊldʒər/
===/d/ or /dʒ/===
 
* cordial (friendly) /ˈkɔːrdʒəl/{{ame}} /ˈkɔːrdiːəl/{{bre}}
 
* fraudulent /ˈfrɔːdʒələnt/ {{ame}} /ˈfrɔːdjələnt/{{bre}}
 
 
== /dʒ/ spelled with "ch" ==
 
*sandwich: /ˈsænwɪtʃ, ˈsænwɪdʒ/
 
*spinach: /ˈspɪnɪtʃ, ˈspɪnɪdʒ/
 
*Greenwich /ˈgrɪnɪdʒ, ˈgrɪnɪtʃ, ˈgrenɪtʃ, ˈgrenɪdʒ/
 
*Norwich /ˈnɒrɪdʒ, ˈnɒrɪtʃ/
 
 
== /dʒ/ spelled with "t" ==
 
*congratulations: /kənˌgrætʃəˈleɪʃənz/{{bre}} {{ame}} /kənˌgrædʒəˈleɪʃənz/{{ame}}&nbsp;<ref>Dictionary.com, [http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/congratulation congratulation]</ref> The pronunciation with /dʒ/, even if it is recognized by Random House is regarded by some as informal or sloppy.<ref>Charles Harrington Elster, ''The Big Book of Beastly Mispronunciations: The Complete Opinionated Guide for the Careful Speaker'', 1999, page 104. Available in [https://books.google.com/books?id=YtojrMr0Ft4C&pg=PA104&lpg=PA104&dq=congratulations Google Books].</ref>
 
  
 
==Anticipated pronunciation difficulties depending on L1==
 
==Anticipated pronunciation difficulties depending on L1==
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As '''/dʒ/''' doesn't exist in Spanish, many Spanish speakers pronounce the initial '''"j"''' in words like "job" and "jet" like '''[[IPA phoneme /j/|/j/]]''', i.e. they do not distinguish very well between "yet" and "jet" or "yob" and "job". Other sounds that they may confuse this sound with are '''[[IPA phoneme /tʃ/|/tʃ/]]''', a sound which does exist in Spanish, and two other sounds which don't: '''[[IPA phoneme /ʃ/|/ʃ/]]''' or '''[[IPA phoneme /ʒ/|/ʒ/]]''', especially as final sounds.
 
As '''/dʒ/''' doesn't exist in Spanish, many Spanish speakers pronounce the initial '''"j"''' in words like "job" and "jet" like '''[[IPA phoneme /j/|/j/]]''', i.e. they do not distinguish very well between "yet" and "jet" or "yob" and "job". Other sounds that they may confuse this sound with are '''[[IPA phoneme /tʃ/|/tʃ/]]''', a sound which does exist in Spanish, and two other sounds which don't: '''[[IPA phoneme /ʃ/|/ʃ/]]''' or '''[[IPA phoneme /ʒ/|/ʒ/]]''', especially as final sounds.
  
Unbelievably some Spanish speakers pronounce "g" as [[IPA phoneme /h/|/h/]] (actually [[IPA phonetic symbol 〚x〛|<nowiki>[x]</nowiki>]]), just like in Spanish. It is not as uncommon as it should be to hear {{wrong+|[ɪnˈtelɪxənt]|"Intelligent" is pronounced /ɪnˈt{{e}}lɪdʒənt/}} (from ''inteligente).''
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Unbelievably some Spanish speakers pronounce "g" as [[IPA phoneme|/h/]] (actually [[IPA phonetic symbol 〚x〛|<nowiki>[x]</nowiki>]]), just like in Spanish. It is not as uncommon as it should be to hear [ɪnˈtelɪxənt] (from ''inteligente).''
  
The sentence "güi don nid nou eduqueishon"<ref>In case you wondered, it means ''We don't need no education''.</ref> appears several times in Google, with several spellings for each word. You can find, for example, ''eduqueichon, edukeichon, edukeison,<ref>"s" for  /ʃ/ is used only by Spaniards.</ref> eduqueiyon,<ref>"y" for /ʃ/ is used by Argentinians and Uruguayans.</ref> ediukeishon'' or ''ediuqueishon''. Also, taking into account the actual accent of the song, ''educaichon'' or ''educaishon''. However, the more "correct" transcription ''eyuqueichon'' at the time of writing appeared only once (in a Twitter message). Other combinations (such as ''ellukeishon'' or ''eyucaichon)'' were not present. This confirms that Spanish speakers don't know that ''education'' has a /dʒ/ sound.
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The sentence "güi don nid nou eduqueishon"<ref>In case you wondered, it means ''We don't need no education''.</ref> appears several times in Google, with several spellings for each word. You can find, for example, ''eduqueichon, edukeichon, ediukeishon, edukeison''<ref>"s" for  /ʃ/ is used only by Spaniards.</ref> or ''ediuqueishon''. However, the more "correct" transcription ''eyuqueichon'' at the time of writing appeared only once (in a Twitter message). Other combinations (such as ''ellukeishon'') were not present. This confirms that Spanish speakers don't know that ''education'' as a /dʒ/ sound.
 
 
===Argentinian Spanish===
 
Most Argentinians pronounce "ll" and "y" as /ʃ/, while some pronounce them like /dʒ/ or /ʒ/. In any case, they confuse these three sounds in any position, not just final.<ref>Search for "Shack el Destripador" (Jack the Ripper) or "Shenifer Lopez".</ref> Moreover, since standard pronunciation of Spanish "y" is similar to /j/ some students may also confuse /j/ and /ʃ/.<ref>Search for "Nueva Shork" or "shu tub" (YouTube).</ref> For Argentinians English /j/ is like Spanish "hi" as in "hielo" [ˈjelo].
 
 
 
==Notes and references==
 
<references/>
 
  
 
==See also==
 
==See also==
*[[Decoding the letter J]]
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*[[Pronunciation]]
*[[Decoding the letter G]]
 
*[[Decoding the letter D]]
 
*[[Pronunciation exercises: /dʒ/ vs /tʃ/]]
 
*[[Pronunciation exercises: /dʒ/ vs /ʒ/]]
 
*[[Pronunciation exercises: /dʒ/ vs /j/]]
 
  
 
==External links==
 
==External links==
 
*[http://www.bl.uk/learning/langlit/sounds/case-studies/received-pronunciation/consonants/ British Library: Learning - Sounds Familiar?]
 
*[http://www.bl.uk/learning/langlit/sounds/case-studies/received-pronunciation/consonants/ British Library: Learning - Sounds Familiar?]
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==Notes==
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<references/>
  
 
[[Category:IPA phonetic symbols|Consonant /dz/]]
 
[[Category:IPA phonetic symbols|Consonant /dz/]]
 
[[Category:Consonant phonemes|dz]]
 
[[Category:Consonant phonemes|dz]]

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IPA: ð dʒ ŋ ʃ tʃ θ ʒ ɑː æ aɪ aʊ e/ɛ eə/ɛə eɪ iː ɪ ɪə ɒ ɔː ɔɪ əʊ/oʊ uː ʊ ʊə ʌ ə ɜː ˈ ˌ

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