Difference between revisions of "IPA phoneme /aɪ/"

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At the advice of Clive Upton the ''Concise Oxford Dictionary'' altered the British tradition and now uses /ʌɪ/ instead of /aɪ/; later ''Oxford Dictionaries Online'' followed the same convention.<ref>Oxford Dictionaries Online, [http://www.oxforddictionaries.com/words/key-to-pronunciation Key to pronunciations (British and World English dictionary)]. See ʌɪ as in m''y''.</ref>  The phonetician Jack Windsor Lewis says "the verdict on /ʌɪ/ alongside /aʊ/ must be that it is a very regrettable departure from EPD14b [Daniel Jones ''English Pronouncing Dictionary]'' that would be better abandoned in future."<ref>Jack Windsor Lewis, [http://www.yek.me.uk/ipadicts.html IPA vowel symbols for British English in dictionaries], Section 8. /ʌɪ/ versus /aɪ/.</ref>
 
At the advice of Clive Upton the ''Concise Oxford Dictionary'' altered the British tradition and now uses /ʌɪ/ instead of /aɪ/; later ''Oxford Dictionaries Online'' followed the same convention.<ref>Oxford Dictionaries Online, [http://www.oxforddictionaries.com/words/key-to-pronunciation Key to pronunciations (British and World English dictionary)]. See ʌɪ as in m''y''.</ref>  The phonetician Jack Windsor Lewis says "the verdict on /ʌɪ/ alongside /aʊ/ must be that it is a very regrettable departure from EPD14b [Daniel Jones ''English Pronouncing Dictionary]'' that would be better abandoned in future."<ref>Jack Windsor Lewis, [http://www.yek.me.uk/ipadicts.html IPA vowel symbols for British English in dictionaries], Section 8. /ʌɪ/ versus /aɪ/.</ref>
  
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==Common words==
 
{{IPA}}
 
{{IPA}}
==Common words==
 
 
Some common words which practice the [[pronunciation]] of '''/aɪ/''' include the following:  
 
Some common words which practice the [[pronunciation]] of '''/aɪ/''' include the following:  
 
===One syllable===
 
===One syllable===
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===Several syllables===
 
===Several syllables===
 
* with "'''i'''"
 
* with "'''i'''"
:Followed by one consonant: environment - finally - '''i'''dentity - item - primary - private
+
:followed by one consonant: finally - '''i'''dentity - item - primary - private
:Followed by two or more consonants: behind - library - title
+
:followed by two or more consonants: behind - ireland - library - title
:Followed by a vowel: idea - science - society - variety - trial
+
:followed by a vowel: idea - science - society - variety - trial
* with "'''i'''" and [[magic e]]: arrive - decide - define - describe - exercise - inside - outside - provide - realise{{brSp}}/realize - require - surprise
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* with "'''i'''" and [[magic e]]: arrive - decide - define - describe - exercise - inside - outside - provide - realise{{brSp}}/realize - surprise
 
* with "'''ig'''": align - assign - design - resign
 
* with "'''ig'''": align - assign - design - resign
 
* with "'''y'''" and [[magic e]]: analyse{{brSp}}/analyze{{amSp}}
 
* with "'''y'''" and [[magic e]]: analyse{{brSp}}/analyze{{amSp}}
* with "'''y'''": apply - cycle - deny - identify - July - reply - supply
+
* with "'''y'''"  
 +
:ending in stressed /aɪ/: apply - deny - July - nearby - rely - reply - supply
 +
:ending in /aɪ/ with secondary stress: identify - occupy - qualify - satisfy - specify
 +
:other: cycle - hypothesis - ps'''y'''chology
  
 
==Less common words==
 
==Less common words==
 
* with "'''i'''":  
 
* with "'''i'''":  
:Followed by one consonant: ivory, Niger, N'''i'''geria, North Carolina, South Carolina
+
:with magic e: bite, knife, precise, pride, rice, slice, wipe, wise
:Followed by two or more consonants: grind
+
:followed by one consonant: binary, ivory, Niger, N'''i'''geria, North Carolina, South Carolina, tiger
:Followed by a vowel: Brian, Diana, Diane, Iowa, Ohio
+
:followed by two or more consonants: bible, grind
 +
:followed by a vowel: biography, Brian, diagnose, Diana, Diane, Iowa, lion, Ohio
 
* with "'''igh'''": Brighton
 
* with "'''igh'''": Brighton
* with "'''y'''": Ryan, sty, tycoon, Wyoming
+
* with "'''y'''": byte, dynamic, hyaena,{{brSp}} hyena,{{amSp}} hygiene, python, rhyme, Ryan, spy, sty, tycoon, Wyoming
 
* with "'''ei'''": apartheid, gesundheit, kaleidoscope, leitmotif, poltergeist, Rottweiler
 
* with "'''ei'''": apartheid, gesundheit, kaleidoscope, leitmotif, poltergeist, Rottweiler
* with "'''ey'''": geyser{{ame}}
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* with "'''ey'''": Cheyenne /ʃaɪˈæn, ʃaɪˈ{{e}}n/, geyser{{ame}}
 
* with  "'''ae'''": maestro, tae kwon do
 
* with  "'''ae'''": maestro, tae kwon do
* with  "'''ai'''": aikido, bonsai, daiquiri, haiku, kaiser, samurai, Taiwan, Thailand
+
* with  "'''ai'''": aikido, bonsai, daiquiri, haiku, Hawaii /həˈwaɪiː/, kaiser, samurai, Taiwan, Thailand
 
* with "'''ay'''": papaya, Paraguay, Uruguay
 
* with "'''ay'''": papaya, Paraguay, Uruguay
* coyote: /kaɪˈəʊ.tiː/, /ˈkaɪ.oʊt/,{{ame}} /kɔɪˈəʊ.tiː/{{bre}}
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* coyote: /kaɪˈəʊ.tiː, ˈkaɪ.oʊt,{{ame}} kɔɪˈəʊ.tiː{{bre}}/
  
 
==/aɪ/ in combination with /r/==
 
==/aɪ/ in combination with /r/==
 
In some words "ir" and "yr" are pronounced /aɪər/, and in others they are pronounced /aɪr/.
 
In some words "ir" and "yr" are pronounced /aɪər/, and in others they are pronounced /aɪr/.
*/aɪə/: acquire - choir - desire - entire - fire - hire - Ireland - iron /aɪərn/ - inspire - Ireland - require - retire - {{extraInformation|tire|BrE "need rest"; AmE "need rest" and "wheel"}} - {{extraInformation|tyre|AmE tire}}{{brSp}} - umpire - wire
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*/aɪə/: acquire - choir - desire - entire - fire - hire - inspire - Ireland - iron /aɪərn/ - require - retire - {{extraInformation|tire|BrE "need rest"; AmE "need rest" and "wheel"}} - {{extraInformation|tyre|AmE tire}}{{brSp}} - umpire - wire
 
*/aɪ/: gyrate - irate - pirate - polystyrene - pyromaniac - spiral - virus
 
*/aɪ/: gyrate - irate - pirate - polystyrene - pyromaniac - spiral - virus
 
*/aɪ/ or /aɪə/: environment
 
*/aɪ/ or /aɪə/: environment
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==[[Heteronym]]s==
 
==[[Heteronym]]s==
*live /lɪv/ ''(verb)'' /laɪv/ ''(adjective)''
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*live /lɪv/ ''(verb),'' /laɪv/ ''(adjective)''
*wind /wɪnd/ ''(air movement)'' /waɪnd/  ''(to tighten a spring)''
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*multiply /ˈmʌltɪplaɪ/ ''(verb),'' /ˈmʌltəpliː/ ''(adverb)''
 +
*wind /wɪnd/ ''(air movement),'' /waɪnd/  ''(to tighten a spring)''
  
 
==Variant pronunciations==
 
==Variant pronunciations==

Revision as of 22:51, 18 August 2019

Upton

ʌɪ

price /prʌɪs/

Strict IPA

aɪ̯

price /praɪ̯s/

Standard

price /praɪs/

In English, both in Received Pronunciation and in General American, the IPA phonetic symbol /aɪ/ corresponds to the vowel sound in words like "price", "fly" and "time". This diphthong is informally called long I and a bit more formally "the long sound of the letter I".

In strict IPA diphthongs need an inverted breve under their less prominent vowel: /aɪ̯/. However the notation we are using does not have the symbol /a/ by itself, and therefore we know that a vowel after /a/ has an implied inverted breve.

This vowel can be pronounced as [aɪ̯], [ʌɪ̯] or (in Australian English) [ɑe̯]. In Southern American English this phoneme can be the monophthong [aː].

At the advice of Clive Upton the Concise Oxford Dictionary altered the British tradition and now uses /ʌɪ/ instead of /aɪ/; later Oxford Dictionaries Online followed the same convention.[1] The phonetician Jack Windsor Lewis says "the verdict on /ʌɪ/ alongside /aʊ/ must be that it is a very regrettable departure from EPD14b [Daniel Jones English Pronouncing Dictionary] that would be better abandoned in future."[2]

Common words

IPA vowels
æ ɑː
trap father - start
e
dress face square
ɪ ɪə
kit fleece near
ɒ əʊ ɔː
lot goat taught
ʊ ʊə
foot goose mature
juː jʊə
cute cure
ʌ ə ɜː
strut comma nurse
ɔɪ
price mouth choice
IPA consonants
Normal sound: /b, d, f, g, h, k, l, m, n, p, r, s, t, v, w, z/
 ʃ  ŋ
show church sing
ʒ  j 
usual judge you
θ ð s
think that see
IPA Stress
ˈ Primary stress
hotel /həʊˈtel/
ˌ Secondary stress
understand
/ˌʌndərˈstænd/
IPA Syllabification
. nitrate /ˈnaɪ.treɪt/, night-rate /ˈnaɪt.reɪt/

Some common words which practice the pronunciation of /aɪ/ include the following:

One syllable

  • with "ie": die - lie - pie - tie
  • with "i": bind - blind - child - climb - find - hi - I - kind - mild - mind - pint - wild - wind (verb) - whilst
  • with "i" and magic e: bike - drive - file - fine - ice - life - like - line - live (adj.) - mile - mine - nice - pine - price - quite - rise - side - site - size - smile - strike - time - while - white - wide - wife - wine - write
  • with "ig": sign
  • with "igh": bright - fight - flight - fright - height - high - light - might - night - right - sigh - sight - slight - thigh - tight
  • with the letter "y": by - cry - dry - dye - fly - fry - my - rye - shy - sky - style - try - type - why
  • others: buy - guy; eye

Several syllables

  • with "i"
followed by one consonant: finally - identity - item - primary - private
followed by two or more consonants: behind - ireland - library - title
followed by a vowel: idea - science - society - variety - trial
  • with "i" and magic e: arrive - decide - define - describe - exercise - inside - outside - provide - realiseBrE/realize - surprise
  • with "ig": align - assign - design - resign
  • with "y" and magic e: analyseBrE/analyzeAmE
  • with "y"
ending in stressed /aɪ/: apply - deny - July - nearby - rely - reply - supply
ending in /aɪ/ with secondary stress: identify - occupy - qualify - satisfy - specify
other: cycle - hypothesis - psychology

Less common words

  • with "i":
with magic e: bite, knife, precise, pride, rice, slice, wipe, wise
followed by one consonant: binary, ivory, Niger, Nigeria, North Carolina, South Carolina, tiger
followed by two or more consonants: bible, grind
followed by a vowel: biography, Brian, diagnose, Diana, Diane, Iowa, lion, Ohio
  • with "igh": Brighton
  • with "y": byte, dynamic, hyaena,BrE hyena,AmE hygiene, python, rhyme, Ryan, spy, sty, tycoon, Wyoming
  • with "ei": apartheid, gesundheit, kaleidoscope, leitmotif, poltergeist, Rottweiler
  • with "ey": Cheyenne /ʃaɪˈæn, ʃaɪˈen/, geyserAmE
  • with "ae": maestro, tae kwon do
  • with "ai": aikido, bonsai, daiquiri, haiku, Hawaii /həˈwaɪiː/, kaiser, samurai, Taiwan, Thailand
  • with "ay": papaya, Paraguay, Uruguay
  • coyote: /kaɪˈəʊ.tiː, ˈkaɪ.oʊt,AmE kɔɪˈəʊ.tiːBrE/

/aɪ/ in combination with /r/

In some words "ir" and "yr" are pronounced /aɪər/, and in others they are pronounced /aɪr/.

  • /aɪə/: acquire - choir - desire - entire - fire - hire - inspire - Ireland - iron /aɪərn/ - require - retire - tire - tyreBrE - umpire - wire
  • /aɪ/: gyrate - irate - pirate - polystyrene - pyromaniac - spiral - virus
  • /aɪ/ or /aɪə/: environment

Homophones

  • aisle - I'll - isle; bite - byte; buy - by; cite - site - sight; die - dye; fined - find; high - hi; I - eye; knight - night; mined - mind; right - rite - write; sighed - side; sighs - size; sight - site; time - thyme; whine - wine; why - Y.

Heteronyms

  • live /lɪv/ (verb), /laɪv/ (adjective)
  • multiply /ˈmʌltɪplaɪ/ (verb), /ˈmʌltəpliː/ (adverb)
  • wind /wɪnd/ (air movement), /waɪnd/ (to tighten a spring)

Variant pronunciations

  • /ə, ɪ, aɪ/: direct, director, directory
  • either /ˈaɪðər, ˈiːðər/, neither /ˈnaɪðər, ˈniːðər/
  • fragile /ˈfrædʒaɪl,BrE ˈfrædʒəlAmE/
  • geyser /ˈɡaɪzər,AmE ˈɡiːzərBrE/

Anticipated pronunciation difficulties depending on L1

Preconceived ideas and other interferences from L1 obviously interfere in many cases with how students perceive - and pronounce - sounds/words in English. The following sections aims to point out some of the most typical difficulties teachers and students may encounter regarding pronunciation.

Spanish

References

  1. Oxford Dictionaries Online, Key to pronunciations (British and World English dictionary). See ʌɪ as in my.
  2. Jack Windsor Lewis, IPA vowel symbols for British English in dictionaries, Section 8. /ʌɪ/ versus /aɪ/.

See also

External links