Difference between revisions of "IPA phoneme /ʌ/"

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In English, both in [[Received Pronunciation]] and in [[General American]], the [[IPA]] [[phonetic symbol]] '''/ʌ/''' corresponds to the [[monophthong]] [[vowel]] sound in words like "strut", "nut" and "bus".
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<div style="float:right; margin-left:1em;">
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{{IPA symbol|ˈ&thinsp;ə|IPA phoneme /ʌ/|stutter /ˈstətər/|Some<br>dictionaries}}
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{{IPA symbol|ʌ|IPA phoneme /ʌ/|stutter /ˈstʌtər/|Standard<br>&nbsp;}}
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</div>
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In English, both in [[Received Pronunciation]] and in [[General American]], the [[IPA]] [[phonetic symbol]] '''/ʌ/''' corresponds to the [[monophthong]] [[vowel sound]] in words like "strut", "nut" and "bus".
  
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When this sound is unstressed it sounds [[IPA phoneme /ə/|/ə/]], and conversely, a stressed /ə/ (impossible in American English, very rare in Received Pronunciation) normally sounds /ʌ/; however for many speakers [ʌ] and [ə] are clearly different and any of them can be either stressed or unstressed.<ref>[[John Wells]]'s phonetic blog, [http://phonetic-blog.blogspot.com/2010/07/strut-and-comma.html STRUT and commA], 13 July 2010.</ref>
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Since /ʌ/ always is stressed and /ə/ never is, in theory there is no confusion if only one symbol is used,<ref>Geoff Lindsey, [http://englishspeechservices.com/blog/british-vowels/ The British English vowel system], 8 March 2012.</ref> and some dictionaries follow that rule.<ref>gdict, [http://gdict.org/define.php?word=stutter stutter] /ˈstətər/</ref><ref>Nice Definition, [http://nicedefinition.com/Definition/Word/stutter/stutter.aspx stutter] /ˈstətər/</ref> In this case /ˈstətər/ for "stutter" must be interpreted as [ˈstʌtər].
 
==Common words==
 
==Common words==
 
Some common words which practice the pronunciation of '''/ʌ/''' include the following:  
 
Some common words which practice the pronunciation of '''/ʌ/''' include the following:  
* with "'''u'''": bun - bus - but - butter - cut - fun - gun - luck - run - lunch - summer - sun - Sunday - thunder - truck - tunnel - under - up - us
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* with "'''u'''": bun - bus - but - butter - cut - fun - gun - luck - lunch - run - structure - summer - sun - Sunday - thunder - truck - tunnel - under - up - us
 
* with "'''o'''": {{"o" as /ʌ/|:}}
 
* with "'''o'''": {{"o" as /ʌ/|:}}
* [[Pronunciation exercises: "oo"|with "'''oo'''"]]: blood - flood
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* [[Decoding exercises: "ou"|with "'''ou'''"]]: country - couple - cousin - double - southern - touch - trouble - young
* [[Pronunciation exercises: "ou"|with "'''ou'''"]]: country - couple - cousin - double - southern - touch - trouble - young
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* [[homophones]]: none - nun; one - won; some - sum; son - sun;
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===Spelling anomalies===
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* with '''"a"''': was /wʌz,{{ame}} wɒz, wəz/ - wasn't /ˈwʌzənt,{{ame}} ˈwɒzənt/ - what /wʌt,{{ame}} wɒt, wət/
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* with '''"oe"''': does ''(verb)'' - doesn't
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* [[Decoding exercises: "oo"|with "'''oo'''"]]: blood - flood
 
: with "'''ough'''": enough - rough - tough
 
: with "'''ough'''": enough - rough - tough
* [[homophones]]: none/nun - one/won - some/sum - son/sun
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==/ʌ/ and /ɜː/==
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See [[IPA phoneme /ɜː/#.2F.C9.9C.CB.90.2F and .2F.CA.8C.2F|IPA phoneme /ɜː/ &mdash; /ɜː/ and /ʌ/]].
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==Variant pronunciations==
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*accomplice /əˈkɑːmplɪs{{ame}}, əˈkʌmplɪs{{bre}}/<ref>Oxford Learner's Dictionaries, [http://www.oxfordlearnersdictionaries.com/definition/english/accomplice accomplice].</ref>
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*from /frɒm,<ref>Oxford Learner's Dictionaries, [http://www.oxfordlearnersdictionaries.com/definition/english/from from].</ref> frʌm{{ame}}/
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*twenty /ˈtwɛntiː, ˈtwʌntiː{{ame}}/<ref>{{Random House|twenty}}</ref>
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*what /wɒt, wʌt{{ame}}/<ref>Oxford Learner's Dictionaries, [http://www.oxfordlearnersdictionaries.com/definition/english/what what].</ref>
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*anybody /ˈ{{e}}niːbɒdiː, ˈ{{e}}niːbʌdiː{{ame}}/
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*everybody /ˈ{{e}}vriːbɒdiː, ˈ{{e}}vriːbʌdiː{{ame}}/
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*nobody /ˈnəʊbədiː, ˈnəʊbɒdiː,{{ame}} ˈnəʊbʌdiː{{ame}}/
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*somebody /ˈsʌmbədiː, ˈsʌmbɒdiː,{{ame}} ˈsʌmbʌdiː{{ame}}/
  
 
==Anticipated pronunciation difficulties depending on L1==
 
==Anticipated pronunciation difficulties depending on L1==
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Spelling is a big interference for Spanish speakers, and they may rhyme "null" with "full" and "pull": /nʌl, fʊl, pʊl/ pronounced [nul, ful, pul].
 
Spelling is a big interference for Spanish speakers, and they may rhyme "null" with "full" and "pull": /nʌl, fʊl, pʊl/ pronounced [nul, ful, pul].
  
Spanish speakers can be divided into those who pronounce ''"cantri clab"'' and those who pronounce ''"contri clob"'' (for "country club"). In Spain, Chile and Argentina /ʌ/ is heard as [a], whereas in Mexico, Central America and Venezuela it is heard as [o].
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See [[Pronunciation exercises: /ʌ/ vs /æ/#Spanish|Pronunciation exercises: /ʌ/ vs /æ/ § Spanish]]
  
For those in the first group the "problem" is that, although '''/ʌ/''' is very similar to the Spanish vowel '''"a"''', it is in fact "much" shorter, while '''/æ/''' doesn't exist as such. Many of them have difficulty distinguishing between "hungry" and "angry". Others may think than "son" and "sun" are not homophones.
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==References==
 
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<references/> [[category:index]]
Those in the second group normally don't even know that '''/ʌ/''', the stressed vowel of "brother" is different form '''/ɒ/''', the one of "bother". Another difficulty is remembering that there are many common words with the letter "'''o'''" pronounced '''/ʌ/'''.
 
 
 
Since most translations into Latin American Spanish are made in Mexico, Psyduck (a Pokémon) is pronounced [ˈsaidok] even in Chile and Argentina. "Bubble Guppies" is translated in Argentina, and presumably Mexican children say [ˈbabḷ ˈgapis]. See [http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pn3kF8_FNiQ Bubble Guppies Español Latino ¿Quien va a ser el malvado lobo feroz?]
 
 
 
To help students pronounce '''/æ/''' there are three schools of thought:
 
*Practising the Spanish '''"a"''' followed rapidly by the '''"e"''' (however this would result in a diphthong like the one in "eye"). 
 
*A better method would be trying to produce a sound in between Spanish '''"a"''' and Spanish '''"e"''' at the same time.
 
*The third alternative is to believe the ''Concise Oxford Dictionary'' (1966) that thinks /æ/ currently sounds [a] in Received Pronunciation. For a discussion see&nbsp;<ref>[http://www.yek.me.uk/ipadicts.html IPA vowel symbols for British English in dictionaries], Section 6. /a/ versus /ӕ/.</ref>. This would result in sounding /æ/ as Spanish "a" and practising /ʌ/ as a different vowel, midway between Spanish "o" and Spanish "a". This could be dubbed ''the Mexican approach'', as they are the biggest group who says ''"contri clob"''.
 
  
 
==See also==
 
==See also==
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*[[Pronunciation exercises: /ʌ/ vs /ɒ/]]
 
*[[Pronunciation exercises: /ʌ/ vs /ɒ/]]
  
==External links==
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*[http://www.bl.uk/learning/langlit/sounds/case-studies/received-pronunciation/vowel-sounds-rp/ British Library: Learning - Sounds Familiar?]
 
*[http://www.bl.uk/learning/langlit/sounds/case-studies/received-pronunciation/vowel-sounds-rp/ British Library: Learning - Sounds Familiar?]
  
[[Category:IPA phonetic symbols|Vowel /ʌ/]]
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[[category:iPA phonetic symbols|Vowel /ʌ/]]
[[Category:Vowel phonemes|ʌ]]
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[[category:vowel phonemes|ʌ]]

Latest revision as of 06:24, 13 May 2020

Some
dictionaries

ˈ ə

stutter /ˈstətər/

Standard
 

ʌ

stutter /ˈstʌtər/

In English, both in Received Pronunciation and in General American, the IPA phonetic symbol /ʌ/ corresponds to the monophthong vowel sound in words like "strut", "nut" and "bus".

When this sound is unstressed it sounds /ə/, and conversely, a stressed /ə/ (impossible in American English, very rare in Received Pronunciation) normally sounds /ʌ/; however for many speakers [ʌ] and [ə] are clearly different and any of them can be either stressed or unstressed.[1]

Since /ʌ/ always is stressed and /ə/ never is, in theory there is no confusion if only one symbol is used,[2] and some dictionaries follow that rule.[3][4] In this case /ˈstətər/ for "stutter" must be interpreted as [ˈstʌtər].

Common words[edit]

Some common words which practice the pronunciation of /ʌ/ include the following:

  • with "u": bun - bus - but - butter - cut - fun - gun - luck - lunch - run - structure - summer - sun - Sunday - thunder - truck - tunnel - under - up - us
  • with "o":
O adjacent to "m": accomplishBrE - Colombia - come - comfort - comfortable /ˈkʌmftəbəl, ˈkʌmfərtəbəl/ - company - compass - mother - some - stomach
O adjacent to "m" and "n": among - Monday - money - mongrel - monk - monkey - month
O adjacent to "n": another - confrontation - done - front - honey - London - none - nothing - one /wʌn/ - once /wʌns/ - onion /ˈʌnjən/ - son - sponge - ton - tongue - tonne
O adjacent to "n" and "w": won - wonder - wonderful
O adjacent to "v": above - Coventry /ˈkʌvəntriː, ˈkɒvəntriː/ - cover - covet - discover - dove (bird) - glove - government - love - lover - oven - shovel - slovenly
Other: brother - colorAmE - colourBrE - dozen - other - thorough /ˈθʌrə,BrE ˈθɜːrəʊAmE/
  • with "ou": country - couple - cousin - double - southern - touch - trouble - young
  • homophones: none - nun; one - won; some - sum; son - sun;

Spelling anomalies[edit]

  • with "a": was /wʌz,AmE wɒz, wəz/ - wasn't /ˈwʌzənt,AmE ˈwɒzənt/ - what /wʌt,AmE wɒt, wət/
  • with "oe": does (verb) - doesn't
  • with "oo": blood - flood
with "ough": enough - rough - tough

/ʌ/ and /ɜː/[edit]

See IPA phoneme /ɜː/ — /ɜː/ and /ʌ/.

Variant pronunciations[edit]

  • accomplice /əˈkɑːmplɪsAmE, əˈkʌmplɪsBrE/[5]
  • from /frɒm,[6] frʌmAmE/
  • twenty /ˈtwɛntiː, ˈtwʌntiːAmE/[7]
  • what /wɒt, wʌtAmE/[8]
  • anybody /ˈeniːbɒdiː, ˈeniːbʌdiːAmE/
  • everybody /ˈevriːbɒdiː, ˈevriːbʌdiːAmE/
  • nobody /ˈnəʊbədiː, ˈnəʊbɒdiː,AmE ˈnəʊbʌdiːAmE/
  • somebody /ˈsʌmbədiː, ˈsʌmbɒdiː,AmE ˈsʌmbʌdiːAmE/

Anticipated pronunciation difficulties depending on L1[edit]

Preconceived ideas and other interferences from L1 obviously interfere in many cases with how students perceive - and pronounce - sounds/words in English. The following sections aims to point out some of the most typical difficulties teachers and students may encounter regarding pronunciation.

Spanish[edit]

Spelling is a big interference for Spanish speakers, and they may rhyme "null" with "full" and "pull": /nʌl, fʊl, pʊl/ pronounced [nul, ful, pul].

See Pronunciation exercises: /ʌ/ vs /æ/ § Spanish

References[edit]

  1. John Wells's phonetic blog, STRUT and commA, 13 July 2010.
  2. Geoff Lindsey, The British English vowel system, 8 March 2012.
  3. gdict, stutter /ˈstətər/
  4. Nice Definition, stutter /ˈstətər/
  5. Oxford Learner's Dictionaries, accomplice.
  6. Oxford Learner's Dictionaries, from.
  7. "twenty". Dictionary.com Unabridged. Random House, Inc.
  8. Oxford Learner's Dictionaries, what.

See also[edit]