Difference between revisions of "IPA phoneme /ʌ/"

From Teflpedia
(Common words: touch)
m (Text replacement - "vowel sound" to "vowel sound")
 
(35 intermediate revisions by 5 users not shown)
Line 1: Line 1:
{{Phonetics}}
+
<div style="float:right; margin-left:1em;">
 +
{{IPA symbol|ˈ&thinsp;ə|IPA phoneme /ʌ/|stutter /ˈstətər/|Some<br>dictionaries}}
 +
{{IPA symbol|ʌ|IPA phoneme /ʌ/|stutter /ˈstʌtər/|Standard<br>&nbsp;}}
 +
</div>
 +
In English, both in [[Received Pronunciation]] and in [[General American]], the [[IPA]] [[phonetic symbol]] '''/ʌ/''' corresponds to the [[monophthong]] [[vowel sound]] in words like "strut", "nut" and "bus".
  
In [[Received Pronunciation]], the [[IPA]] [[phonetic symbol]] '''/ʌ/''' corresponds to the [[monophthong]] [[vowel]] sound in words like "strut", "nut" and "bus".
+
When this sound is unstressed it sounds [[IPA phoneme /ə/|/ə/]], and conversely, a stressed /ə/ (impossible in American English, very rare in Received Pronunciation) normally sounds /ʌ/; however for many speakers [ʌ] and [ə] are clearly different and any of them can be either stressed or unstressed.<ref>[[John Wells]]'s phonetic blog, [http://phonetic-blog.blogspot.com/2010/07/strut-and-comma.html STRUT and commA], 13 July 2010.</ref>
  
 +
Since /ʌ/ always is stressed and /ə/ never is, in theory there is no confusion if only one symbol is used,<ref>Geoff Lindsey, [http://englishspeechservices.com/blog/british-vowels/ The British English vowel system], 8 March 2012.</ref> and some dictionaries follow that rule.<ref>gdict, [http://gdict.org/define.php?word=stutter stutter] /ˈstətər/</ref><ref>Nice Definition, [http://nicedefinition.com/Definition/Word/stutter/stutter.aspx stutter] /ˈstətər/</ref> In this case /ˈstətər/ for "stutter" must be interpreted as [ˈstʌtər].
 
==Common words==
 
==Common words==
 
Some common words which practice the pronunciation of '''/ʌ/''' include the following:  
 
Some common words which practice the pronunciation of '''/ʌ/''' include the following:  
* with "'''u'''": bun - bus - but - butter - cut - fun - gun - luck - run - lunch - summer - sun - Sunday - thunder - truck - tunnel - under - up - us
+
* with "'''u'''": bun - bus - but - butter - cut - fun - gun - luck - lunch - run - structure - summer - sun - Sunday - thunder - truck - tunnel - under - up - us
* with "'''o'''": {{"o" as /ʌ/}}
+
* with "'''o'''": {{"o" as /ʌ/|:}}
* [[Pronunciation exercises: "oo"|with "'''oo'''"]]: blood - flood
+
* [[Decoding exercises: "ou"|with "'''ou'''"]]: country - couple - cousin - double - southern - touch - trouble - young
* [[Pronunciation exercises: "ou"|with "'''ou'''"]]: country - couple - cousin - double - southern - touch - trouble - young
+
* [[homophones]]: none - nun; one - won; some - sum; son - sun;
 +
 
 +
===Spelling anomalies===
 +
* with '''"a"''': was /wʌz,{{ame}} wɒz, wəz/ - wasn't /ˈwʌzənt,{{ame}} ˈwɒzənt/ - what /wʌt,{{ame}} wɒt, wət/
 +
* with '''"oe"''': does ''(verb)'' - doesn't
 +
* [[Decoding exercises: "oo"|with "'''oo'''"]]: blood - flood
 
: with "'''ough'''": enough - rough - tough
 
: with "'''ough'''": enough - rough - tough
* [[homophones]]: none/nun - one/won - some/sum - son/sun
+
 
 +
==/ʌ/ and /ɜː/==
 +
See [[IPA phoneme /ɜː/#.2F.C9.9C.CB.90.2F and .2F.CA.8C.2F|IPA phoneme /ɜː/ &mdash; /ɜː/ and /ʌ/]].
 +
 
 +
==Variant pronunciations==
 +
*accomplice /əˈkɑːmplɪs{{ame}}, əˈkʌmplɪs{{bre}}/<ref>Oxford Learner's Dictionaries, [http://www.oxfordlearnersdictionaries.com/definition/english/accomplice accomplice].</ref>
 +
*from /frɒm,<ref>Oxford Learner's Dictionaries, [http://www.oxfordlearnersdictionaries.com/definition/english/from from].</ref> frʌm{{ame}}/
 +
*twenty /ˈtwɛntiː, ˈtwʌntiː{{ame}}/<ref>{{Random House|twenty}}</ref>
 +
*what /wɒt, wʌt{{ame}}/<ref>Oxford Learner's Dictionaries, [http://www.oxfordlearnersdictionaries.com/definition/english/what what].</ref>
 +
 
 +
*anybody /ˈ{{e}}niːbɒdiː, ˈ{{e}}niːbʌdiː{{ame}}/
 +
*everybody /ˈ{{e}}vriːbɒdiː, ˈ{{e}}vriːbʌdiː{{ame}}/
 +
*nobody /ˈnəʊbədiː, ˈnəʊbɒdiː,{{ame}} ˈnəʊbʌdiː{{ame}}/
 +
*somebody /ˈsʌmbədiː, ˈsʌmbɒdiː,{{ame}} ˈsʌmbʌdiː{{ame}}/
  
 
==Anticipated pronunciation difficulties depending on L1==
 
==Anticipated pronunciation difficulties depending on L1==
Line 16: Line 39:
  
 
===Spanish===
 
===Spanish===
While '''/ʌ/''' is very similar the Spanish letter "'''a'''", it is in fact somewhat shorter and many Spanish speakers have difficulty distinguishing between "hungry" and "angry". Another difficulty is remembering that there are many common words with the letter "'''o'''" pronounced '''/ʌ/''' (see above).
+
Spelling is a big interference for Spanish speakers, and they may rhyme "null" with "full" and "pull": /nʌl, fʊl, pʊl/ pronounced [nul, ful, pul].
  
Spelling is a big interference for Spanish Speakers, and they may rhyme "null" with "full" and "pull" (/nʌl, fʊl, pʊl/).
+
See [[Pronunciation exercises: /ʌ/ vs /æ/#Spanish|Pronunciation exercises: /ʌ/ vs /æ/ § Spanish]]
  
Note that in Spain, Chile and Argentina /ʌ/ is heard as [a], whereas in Mexico, Central America and Venezuela it is heard as [o]. This means that in spoken Spanish ''Seven Up'' is normally pronounced [sebe'nap] in the first three countries and [sebe'nop] in the others. This is transferred to English.
+
==References==
 
+
<references/> [[category:index]]
Since most translations into Latin American Spanish are made in Mexico, Psyduck (a Pokémon) is pronounced ['saidok] even in Chile and Argentina. "Bubble Guppies" is translated in Argentina, and presumably Mexican children say ['babḷ 'gapis]. See [http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pn3kF8_FNiQ Bubble Guppies Español Latino ¿Quien va a ser el malvado lobo feroz?]
 
  
 
==See also==
 
==See also==
Line 29: Line 51:
 
*[[Pronunciation exercises: /ʌ/ vs /ɒ/]]
 
*[[Pronunciation exercises: /ʌ/ vs /ɒ/]]
  
==External links==
+
 
 
*[http://www.bl.uk/learning/langlit/sounds/case-studies/received-pronunciation/vowel-sounds-rp/ British Library: Learning - Sounds Familiar?]
 
*[http://www.bl.uk/learning/langlit/sounds/case-studies/received-pronunciation/vowel-sounds-rp/ British Library: Learning - Sounds Familiar?]
  
[[Category:IPA phonetic symbols|Vowel /ʌ/]]
+
[[category:iPA phonetic symbols|Vowel /ʌ/]]
[[Category:Vowel phonemes|ʌ]]
+
[[category:vowel phonemes|ʌ]]

Latest revision as of 06:24, 13 May 2020

Some
dictionaries

ˈ ə

stutter /ˈstətər/

Standard
 

ʌ

stutter /ˈstʌtər/

In English, both in Received Pronunciation and in General American, the IPA phonetic symbol /ʌ/ corresponds to the monophthong vowel sound in words like "strut", "nut" and "bus".

When this sound is unstressed it sounds /ə/, and conversely, a stressed /ə/ (impossible in American English, very rare in Received Pronunciation) normally sounds /ʌ/; however for many speakers [ʌ] and [ə] are clearly different and any of them can be either stressed or unstressed.[1]

Since /ʌ/ always is stressed and /ə/ never is, in theory there is no confusion if only one symbol is used,[2] and some dictionaries follow that rule.[3][4] In this case /ˈstətər/ for "stutter" must be interpreted as [ˈstʌtər].

Common words[edit]

Some common words which practice the pronunciation of /ʌ/ include the following:

  • with "u": bun - bus - but - butter - cut - fun - gun - luck - lunch - run - structure - summer - sun - Sunday - thunder - truck - tunnel - under - up - us
  • with "o":
O adjacent to "m": accomplishBrE - Colombia - come - comfort - comfortable /ˈkʌmftəbəl, ˈkʌmfərtəbəl/ - company - compass - mother - some - stomach
O adjacent to "m" and "n": among - Monday - money - mongrel - monk - monkey - month
O adjacent to "n": another - confrontation - done - front - honey - London - none - nothing - one /wʌn/ - once /wʌns/ - onion /ˈʌnjən/ - son - sponge - ton - tongue - tonne
O adjacent to "n" and "w": won - wonder - wonderful
O adjacent to "v": above - Coventry /ˈkʌvəntriː, ˈkɒvəntriː/ - cover - covet - discover - dove (bird) - glove - government - love - lover - oven - shovel - slovenly
Other: brother - colorAmE - colourBrE - dozen - other - thorough /ˈθʌrə,BrE ˈθɜːrəʊAmE/
  • with "ou": country - couple - cousin - double - southern - touch - trouble - young
  • homophones: none - nun; one - won; some - sum; son - sun;

Spelling anomalies[edit]

  • with "a": was /wʌz,AmE wɒz, wəz/ - wasn't /ˈwʌzənt,AmE ˈwɒzənt/ - what /wʌt,AmE wɒt, wət/
  • with "oe": does (verb) - doesn't
  • with "oo": blood - flood
with "ough": enough - rough - tough

/ʌ/ and /ɜː/[edit]

See IPA phoneme /ɜː/ — /ɜː/ and /ʌ/.

Variant pronunciations[edit]

  • accomplice /əˈkɑːmplɪsAmE, əˈkʌmplɪsBrE/[5]
  • from /frɒm,[6] frʌmAmE/
  • twenty /ˈtwɛntiː, ˈtwʌntiːAmE/[7]
  • what /wɒt, wʌtAmE/[8]
  • anybody /ˈeniːbɒdiː, ˈeniːbʌdiːAmE/
  • everybody /ˈevriːbɒdiː, ˈevriːbʌdiːAmE/
  • nobody /ˈnəʊbədiː, ˈnəʊbɒdiː,AmE ˈnəʊbʌdiːAmE/
  • somebody /ˈsʌmbədiː, ˈsʌmbɒdiː,AmE ˈsʌmbʌdiːAmE/

Anticipated pronunciation difficulties depending on L1[edit]

Preconceived ideas and other interferences from L1 obviously interfere in many cases with how students perceive - and pronounce - sounds/words in English. The following sections aims to point out some of the most typical difficulties teachers and students may encounter regarding pronunciation.

Spanish[edit]

Spelling is a big interference for Spanish speakers, and they may rhyme "null" with "full" and "pull": /nʌl, fʊl, pʊl/ pronounced [nul, ful, pul].

See Pronunciation exercises: /ʌ/ vs /æ/ § Spanish

References[edit]

  1. John Wells's phonetic blog, STRUT and commA, 13 July 2010.
  2. Geoff Lindsey, The British English vowel system, 8 March 2012.
  3. gdict, stutter /ˈstətər/
  4. Nice Definition, stutter /ˈstətər/
  5. Oxford Learner's Dictionaries, accomplice.
  6. Oxford Learner's Dictionaries, from.
  7. "twenty". Dictionary.com Unabridged. Random House, Inc.
  8. Oxford Learner's Dictionaries, what.

See also[edit]