IPA phoneme /ʃ/
- as "sh": cash - crash - dish - fashion - flash - push - she - shine - shoe - shop - should - wash
- as "ss": assure - discussion - expression - issue - mission - pressure - professional - Russia - tissue
- as "ti":
- as "tio": action - condition - definition - depression - education - function - generation - information - location - mention - nation - option - question - rational - station - tradition - variation
- as "tia": essential - initial - initiative - partial - potential - substantial
- as "tie": patience - patient
- as "ci": efficient - musician - racial - special
- as "ce": ocean
- as "s": Asia /ˈeɪʃə/ or /ˈeɪʒə/ - sugar - sure
- "x" as /kʃ/: anxious
- as "ch": machine
Less common words
- as "sh": bush
- "ss": aggression - obsession
- "x" as /kʃ/: crucifixion - flexion
In words of French origin /ʃ/ can be spelled "ch".
- brochure - cache - champagne - chauffeur - chef - Chicago - parachute
Anticipated pronunciation difficulties depending on L1
Preconceived ideas and other interferences from L1 obviously interfere in many cases with how students perceive - and pronounce - sounds/words in English. The following sections aims to point out some of the most typical difficulties teachers and students may encounter regarding pronunciation.
While Spanish does have /tʃ/, it doesn't have /ʃ/, so there'll be a tendency to pronounce "shoes" as "choose", "shop" as "chop" and "sheet" as "cheat" (this latter example having another, notorious pronunciation difficulty...). Likewise, practice is needed with /ʒ/ vs /ʃ/, as in pleasure, leisure, etc.
It is very difficult for Spanish speakers to pronounce the combination /ʃr/ and in "shrimp". In Spain the movie Shrek is pronounced [eʃ.ɾek] and in Latin America it is pronounced [ʃ.ɾek] or [ʃe.ɾek].
- Pronunciation exercises: /ʃ/ vs /tʃ/
- IPA phoneme /s/
- IPA phoneme /ʒ/
- Pronunciation exercises: "sion"