Difference between revisions of "IPA phoneme /ʃ/"

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{{IPA symbol|ʃ|IPA phoneme /ʃ/|shoe /ʃuː/}}
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{{IPA}}
 
In [[Received Pronunciation]] and in [[General American]], the [[IPA]] [[phonetic symbol]] '''/ʃ/''' corresponds to the initial [[consonant]] sound in words like "shoe", and "she" and the final one in "push" and "fish".
 
In [[Received Pronunciation]] and in [[General American]], the [[IPA]] [[phonetic symbol]] '''/ʃ/''' corresponds to the initial [[consonant]] sound in words like "shoe", and "she" and the final one in "push" and "fish".
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/ʃ/ is an [[Voiced and unvoiced sounds|unvoiced]] consonant; its voiced counterpart is [[IPA phoneme /ʒ/]].
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/ʃ/ is a fricative; its affricate counterpart is [[IPA phoneme /tʃ/]].
  
 
==Common words==
 
==Common words==
*as "sh": bush - cash - crash - dish - fashion - flash - push - she - shine - shoe - shop - should - wash
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*with "sh": cash - crash - dish - establish - fashion - finish - fish - flash - fresh - push - relationship - shake - shall - shape - share - she - shift - shine - ship - shock - shoe - shoot - shop - short - should - shoulder - show - wash - wish
*as "ss": assure - discussion - expression - issue - mission - pressure - professional - Russia - tissue
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*with "ss":  
*as "ti": condition - information - option - partial - patient - potential - question - rational - station
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:with "ssi": commission - depression - discussion - expression - impression - mission - professional - Russia - session
*as "s": Asia /ˈeɪʃə/ ''or'' /ˈeɪʒə/ - sugar - sure
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:with "ssu": assure - issue - pressure - tissue
*"x" as /kʃ/: anxious - flexion
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*with "ti":  
*as "ch": machine
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:with "tio": action - assumption - condition - definition - education - function - generation - information - location - mention - nation - option - rational - station - tradition - variation
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:with "tia": essential - initial - initiative - partial - potential - substantial
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:with "tie": patience - patient  
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*with "ci": efficient - musician - racial - special
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*with "ce": ocean
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*with "s": Asia /ˈeɪʃə/ ''or'' /ˈeɪʒə/ - sugar - sure
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*"x" as /kʃ/: anxious
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*with "ch": machine
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==/ʃ/ or /s/==
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*asso'''ci'''ate
  
 
==Less common words==
 
==Less common words==
*"ss": aggression - depression - obsession - pressure
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*with "sh": bush, shampoo
*"x" as /kʃ/: crucifixion
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*with "si": controversial
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*with "ssi": aggression, obsession
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*with "sc": conscience, conscious, fascism
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*with "ci": delicious, electrician, malicious, politician
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*with "ce": ceta'''ce'''an, crustacean
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*"x" as /kʃ/: crucifixion, flexion
 
In words of French origin /ʃ/ can be spelled "ch".
 
In words of French origin /ʃ/ can be spelled "ch".
*brochure - cache - champagne - chauffeur - chef - Chicago - parachute
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*brochure, cache, champagne, chauffeur, chef, Chicago, moustache,{{brSp}} mustache,{{amSp}} parachute
  
 
==Anticipated pronunciation difficulties depending on L1==
 
==Anticipated pronunciation difficulties depending on L1==
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===Spanish===
 
===Spanish===
 
While Spanish does have '''[[IPA phoneme /tʃ/|/tʃ/]]''', it doesn't have '''/ʃ/''', so there'll be a tendency to pronounce "shoes" as "choose", "shop" as "chop" and "sheet" as "cheat" (this latter example having another, [[Pronunciation exercises: /ɪ/ vs /iː/|notorious pronunciation difficulty...]]). Likewise, practice is needed with [[Pronunciation exercises: /ʒ/ vs /ʃ/|/ʒ/ vs /ʃ/]], as in pleasure, leisure, etc.
 
While Spanish does have '''[[IPA phoneme /tʃ/|/tʃ/]]''', it doesn't have '''/ʃ/''', so there'll be a tendency to pronounce "shoes" as "choose", "shop" as "chop" and "sheet" as "cheat" (this latter example having another, [[Pronunciation exercises: /ɪ/ vs /iː/|notorious pronunciation difficulty...]]). Likewise, practice is needed with [[Pronunciation exercises: /ʒ/ vs /ʃ/|/ʒ/ vs /ʃ/]], as in pleasure, leisure, etc.
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It is very difficult for Spanish speakers to pronounce the combination /ʃr/ as in "shrimp". In Spain the movie ''Shrek'' is pronounced [eʃ.ɾek] or even [etʃ.ɾek], and in Latin America it is pronounced [ʃ.ɾek] or [ʃe.ɾek], but most likely [tʃ.ɾek].
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====Argentina====
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Argentinians have the [ʃ] sound in their Spanish /ʝ/ phoneme, in words like "ayer" [aˈʃer] and "llamar" [ʃaˈmar]. They may confuse /ʃ/ and [[IPA phoneme /j/|/j/]] ("yes" pronounced as {{extraInformation|/ʃ{{e}}s/|Correct pronunciation is /j{{e}}s/}}). Many of them use [ʃ] for [[IPA phoneme /dʒ/]] ("jet" pronounced as {{extraInformation|/ʃ{{e}}t/|Correct pronunciation is /dʒ{{e}}t/}}).
  
 
==See also==
 
==See also==
 
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*[[Decoding exercises: "sh"]]
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*[[Decoding exercises: "sion"]]
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*[[Decoding exercises: "ss"]]
 
*[[Pronunciation]]
 
*[[Pronunciation]]
 
*[[Pronunciation exercises: /ʃ/ vs /tʃ/]]
 
*[[Pronunciation exercises: /ʃ/ vs /tʃ/]]
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*[[Pronunciation exercises: /ʒ/ vs /ʃ/]]
 
*[[IPA phoneme /s/]]
 
*[[IPA phoneme /s/]]
 
*[[IPA phoneme /ʒ/]]
 
*[[IPA phoneme /ʒ/]]
*[[Pronunciation exercises: "sion"]]
 
  
 
==External links==
 
==External links==

Latest revision as of 21:10, 4 April 2019

ʃ

shoe /ʃuː/

IPA vowels
æ ɑː
trap father - start
e
dress face square
ɪ ɪə
kit fleece near
ɒ əʊ ɔː
lot goat taught
ʊ ʊə
foot goose mature
juː jʊə
cute cure
ʌ ə ɜː
strut comma nurse
ɔɪ
price mouth choice
IPA consonants
Normal sound: /b, d, f, g, h, k, l, m, n, p, r, s, t, v, w, z/
 ʃ  ŋ
show church sing
ʒ  j 
usual judge you
θ ð s
think that see
IPA Stress
ˈ Primary stress
hotel /həʊˈtel/
ˌ Secondary stress
understand
/ˌʌndərˈstænd/
IPA Syllabification
. nitrate /ˈnaɪ.treɪt/, night-rate /ˈnaɪt.reɪt/

In Received Pronunciation and in General American, the IPA phonetic symbol /ʃ/ corresponds to the initial consonant sound in words like "shoe", and "she" and the final one in "push" and "fish".

/ʃ/ is an unvoiced consonant; its voiced counterpart is IPA phoneme /ʒ/.

/ʃ/ is a fricative; its affricate counterpart is IPA phoneme /tʃ/.

Common words[edit]

  • with "sh": cash - crash - dish - establish - fashion - finish - fish - flash - fresh - push - relationship - shake - shall - shape - share - she - shift - shine - ship - shock - shoe - shoot - shop - short - should - shoulder - show - wash - wish
  • with "ss":
with "ssi": commission - depression - discussion - expression - impression - mission - professional - Russia - session
with "ssu": assure - issue - pressure - tissue
  • with "ti":
with "tio": action - assumption - condition - definition - education - function - generation - information - location - mention - nation - option - rational - station - tradition - variation
with "tia": essential - initial - initiative - partial - potential - substantial
with "tie": patience - patient
  • with "ci": efficient - musician - racial - special
  • with "ce": ocean
  • with "s": Asia /ˈeɪʃə/ or /ˈeɪʒə/ - sugar - sure
  • "x" as /kʃ/: anxious
  • with "ch": machine

/ʃ/ or /s/[edit]

  • associate

Less common words[edit]

  • with "sh": bush, shampoo
  • with "si": controversial
  • with "ssi": aggression, obsession
  • with "sc": conscience, conscious, fascism
  • with "ci": delicious, electrician, malicious, politician
  • with "ce": cetacean, crustacean
  • "x" as /kʃ/: crucifixion, flexion

In words of French origin /ʃ/ can be spelled "ch".

  • brochure, cache, champagne, chauffeur, chef, Chicago, moustache,BrE mustache,AmE parachute

Anticipated pronunciation difficulties depending on L1[edit]

Preconceived ideas and other interferences from L1 obviously interfere in many cases with how students perceive - and pronounce - sounds/words in English. The following sections aims to point out some of the most typical difficulties teachers and students may encounter regarding pronunciation.

Spanish[edit]

While Spanish does have /tʃ/, it doesn't have /ʃ/, so there'll be a tendency to pronounce "shoes" as "choose", "shop" as "chop" and "sheet" as "cheat" (this latter example having another, notorious pronunciation difficulty...). Likewise, practice is needed with /ʒ/ vs /ʃ/, as in pleasure, leisure, etc.

It is very difficult for Spanish speakers to pronounce the combination /ʃr/ as in "shrimp". In Spain the movie Shrek is pronounced [eʃ.ɾek] or even [etʃ.ɾek], and in Latin America it is pronounced [ʃ.ɾek] or [ʃe.ɾek], but most likely [tʃ.ɾek].

Argentina[edit]

Argentinians have the [ʃ] sound in their Spanish /ʝ/ phoneme, in words like "ayer" [aˈʃer] and "llamar" [ʃaˈmar]. They may confuse /ʃ/ and /j/ ("yes" pronounced as /ʃes/). Many of them use [ʃ] for IPA phoneme /dʒ/ ("jet" pronounced as /ʃet/).

See also[edit]

External links[edit]