Editing IPA phoneme /ɪə/

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{{IPA symbol|1=ɪə&#815;|2=IPA phoneme /ɪə/|3=near /nɪə&#815;r/|4=Strict<br>IPA}}
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{{Phonetics}}
{{IPA symbol|ɪ|IPA phoneme /ɪ/|near /nɪr/|American<br>dictionaries}}
 
{{IPA symbol|ɪə|IPA phoneme /ɪə/|near /nɪər/|British<br>dictionaries}}
 
  
In English, in [[Received Pronunciation]], and in some parts of North America the [[IPA]] [[phonetic symbol]] '''/ɪə/''' corresponds to the [[vowel]] sound in words like "near" and "deer".
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In [[Received Pronunciation]], the [[IPA]] [[phonetic symbol]] '''/ɪə/''' corresponds to the [[vowel]] sound in words like "ear" and "deer".
  
In [[General American]] this phoneme is merged with [[IPA phoneme /ɪ/|/ɪ/]]. This means that ''mirror'' and ''nearer'' rhyme. In most American dictionaries /ɪr/ must be understood as [ɪr] before a vowel and [ɪər] at the end of the word or before a consonant. For example /ˈmɪrər/ means [ˈmɪrər] and /dɪr/ means [dɪər].
 
 
In Received Pronunciation /ɪər/ is pronounced [ɪə] unless it is followed by a vowel, i.e. the "r" is normally silent unless it is followed by a vowel. Instead of as a diphthong /ɪə/ may be pronounced as a long vowel [ɪː] or (less often) as two syllables [ɪjə].<ref>Geoff Lindsey, [http://englishspeechservices.com/blog/british-vowels/ The British English vowel system], 8 March 2012.</ref>
 
 
In General American the "r" is always pronounced. Besides, in some parts of North America the beginning of this diphthong is tense, i.e. {{nw|/ɪər/}} sounds [iər] or [iɚ].<ref>Merriam-Webster Learner's Dictionary uses the notation /iɚ/. See [http://www.learnersdictionary.com/definition/near near].</ref>
 
 
There are places in the United Kingdom where the "r" is pronounced, and places in North America where it is not pronounced.
 
 
In strict IPA diphthongs need an inverted breve under their less prominent vowel: /ɪə&#815;/. See [[#Ambiguity|Ambiguity]] below.
 
 
==Common words==
 
==Common words==
 
Some common words which practice the pronunciation of '''/ɪə/''' include the following:  
 
Some common words which practice the pronunciation of '''/ɪə/''' include the following:  
* with "[[Decoding exercises: "ea"|ea]]": appear - beard - clear - dear - ear - fear - gear - hear - near - tear - year
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* with "'''[[Pronunciation exercises: "ea"|ea]]r'''" clear - ear - fear - gear - near - tears - year;
* with "ee": beer - career - cheers! - engineer - peer - volunteer
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* with "'''ee'''": beer - cheers!;
* with [[magic e]]: atmosphere - here - mere - severe
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*others: here - mere - we're - weird;
* with "e": Algeria - criterion - era - experience - interior - material - Nigeria - period - series - serious - we're
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* [[homophones]]: dear/deer - hear/here - peer/pier.
* with "ei": weird
 
 
 
*[[Received Pronunciation|BrE]] /ɪə/, [[General American|AmE]] /ɪə/ or /iːə/: theory
 
*[[Received Pronunciation|BrE]] /ɪə/, [[General American|AmE]] /ɪə/ or /iː/: hero - zero
 
 
 
==Less common words==
 
* with [[magic e]]: austere, interfere
 
* with "e": bacteria, Ceres
 
* with "ie": cashier, fierce, frontier, piercing, tier
 
 
 
==[[Homophones]]==
 
*cereal - serial; dear - deer; hear - here; peer - pier.
 
 
 
==/ɪrV/ vs. /ɪərV/==
 
{{IPA symbol|iɚ|IPA phoneme /ɪə/|near /niɚ/|MWLD}}
 
{{IPA symbol|i|IPA phoneme /ɪə/|mirror /mirɚ/|MWLD}}
 
In many places in North America the sequences /ɪrV/ and /ɪərV/ (where V is any vowel) are pronounced the same, as [iːɹ, iɹ, iːɚ] or [iɚ]. Most American dictionaries use /ɪr/. [[Merriam-Webster's Learner's Dictionary]] uses /ir/.<ref>Merriam-Webster's Learner's Dictionary, [http://www.learnersdictionary.com/definition/mirror mirror], [http://www.learnersdictionary.com/definition/period period].</ref>
 
 
 
See [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/English-language_vowel_changes_before_historic_/r/#Mirror.E2.80.93nearer_merger ''Mirror–nearer'' merger] in Wikipedia.
 
 
 
==Ambiguity==
 
Some dictionaries use /ɪ/ before a vowel, and "previous" is represented as /ˈpriːvɪəs/, with /ɪ/ and /ə/ in different syllables. Ambiguously "near", which has a diphthong, is represented as /nɪər/. There are several ways to deal with this ambiguity.
 
 
 
Using IPA syllable separation, "previous" is /ˈpriː.vɪ.əs/ and "near" is /nɪər/.
 
 
 
Using inverted breve, "previous" is /ˈpriːvɪəs/ and "near" is /nɪə&#815;r/.
 
 
 
Most dictionaries simply ignore the difference. Since the dipththong /ɪə&#815;/ occurs only before /r/, the ambiguity /ɪə&#815;/ vs. /ɪ.ə/ appears in very few words such as ''happier'' {{nw|/ˈhæpɪər/}} (more exactly {{nw|/ˈhæp.ɪ.ər/).}} Someone not familiar with the pronunciation could think it is {{extraInformation|{{nw|/ˈhæp.ɪə&#815;r/}}|Most common pronunciation has three syllables}}.
 
 
 
Other dictionaries, and also Teflpedia, use /iː/ before a vowel (see [[Pronunciation exercises: /ɪ/ vs /iː/#Unstressed syllable|Pronunciation exercises: /ɪ/ vs /iː/ § Unstressed syllable]]). "Happier" is represented as {{nw|/ˈhæpiːər/}} and "near" is {{nw|/nɪər/}}, with no ambiguity.
 
  
 
==Anticipated pronunciation difficulties depending on L1==
 
==Anticipated pronunciation difficulties depending on L1==
 
Preconceived ideas and other interferences from [[L1]] obviously interfere in many cases with how students perceive - and pronounce - sounds/words in English. The following sections aims to point out some of the most typical difficulties teachers and students may encounter regarding pronunciation.
 
Preconceived ideas and other interferences from [[L1]] obviously interfere in many cases with how students perceive - and pronounce - sounds/words in English. The following sections aims to point out some of the most typical difficulties teachers and students may encounter regarding pronunciation.
  
==References==
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===Spanish===  
<references/>
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When using words containing this vowel sound, Spanish speakers tend to use '''[[IPA phonetic symbol (vowel) /eə/|/eə/]]''', i.e. without practice, they tend not to distinguish between "beer" and "bear".
  
 
==See also==
 
==See also==
*[[Decoding exercises: "erV" and "errV"]]
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*[[Pronunciation]]
*[[Pronunciation exercises: /ɪə/ vs /ɪ/]]
 
  
 
==External links==
 
==External links==
 
*[http://www.bl.uk/learning/langlit/sounds/case-studies/received-pronunciation/vowel-sounds-rp/ British Library: Learning - Sounds Familiar?]
 
*[http://www.bl.uk/learning/langlit/sounds/case-studies/received-pronunciation/vowel-sounds-rp/ British Library: Learning - Sounds Familiar?]
  
[[Category:IPA phonetic symbols|Vowel /ie/]]
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[[Category:IPA phonetic symbols|IPA phonetic symbol (vowel) /ie/]]
[[Category:Vowel phonemes|ie]]
 

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IPA: ð dʒ ŋ ʃ tʃ θ ʒ ɑː æ aɪ aʊ e/ɛ eə/ɛə eɪ iː ɪ ɪə ɒ ɔː ɔɪ əʊ/oʊ uː ʊ ʊə ʌ ə ɜː ˈ ˌ

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