Difference between revisions of "IPA phoneme /əʊ/"

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{{IPA symbol|1={{nw|1=ə<span style="letter-spacing:-0.55em">ʊ &#815;</span>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;o<span style="letter-spacing:-0.55em">ʊ &#815;</span>&nbsp;&nbsp;&thinsp;}}|2=IPA phoneme /əʊ/|3=goat /gə<span style="letter-spacing:-0.55em">ʊ &#815;</span>&nbsp;&thinsp;t, go<span style="letter-spacing:-0.55em">ʊ &#815;</span>&nbsp;&thinsp;t/|4=Strict IPA<br>&nbsp;}}
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{{IPA symbol|1={{nw|1=əʊ&#815; &#815;}}|2=IPA phoneme /əʊ/|3=goat /gəʊ&#815;t, goʊ&#815;t/|4=Strict IPA<br>&nbsp;}}
 
{{IPA symbol|oʊ|IPA phoneme /əʊ/|goat /goʊt/|American<br>Dictionaries}}
 
{{IPA symbol|oʊ|IPA phoneme /əʊ/|goat /goʊt/|American<br>Dictionaries}}
 
{{IPA symbol|əʊ|IPA phoneme /əʊ/|goat /gəʊt/|British<br>Dictionaries}}
 
{{IPA symbol|əʊ|IPA phoneme /əʊ/|goat /gəʊt/|British<br>Dictionaries}}
In [[Received Pronunciation]] and in [[General American]] the [[IPA]] [[phonetic symbol]] '''/əʊ/''' corresponds to the [[vowel]] sound in words like "goat", "note", and "know". The actual sound is [əʊ], [ɜʊ]<ref>[[John Wells]], [http://www.phon.ucl.ac.uk/home/wells/ipa-english-uni.htm IPA transcription systems for English], 2001-08-03.</ref> or [əw]<ref>Geoff Lindsey, [http://englishspeechservices.com/blog/british-vowels/ The British English vowel system], 8 March 2012.</ref> in Received Pronunciation and [oʊ] or [ow] in General American. See [[IPA phonetic symbol 〚w〛|IPA phonetic symbol  <nowiki>[w]</nowiki>]].
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In [[Received Pronunciation]] and in [[General American]] the [[IPA]] [[phonetic symbol]] '''/əʊ/''' corresponds to the [[vowel sound]] in words like "goat", "note", and "know". The actual sound is [əʊ], [ɜʊ]<ref>[[John Wells]], [http://www.phon.ucl.ac.uk/home/wells/ipa-english-uni.htm IPA transcription systems for English], 2001-08-03.</ref> or [əw]<ref>Geoff Lindsey, [http://englishspeechservices.com/blog/british-vowels/ The British English vowel system], 8 March 2012.</ref> in Received Pronunciation and [oʊ] or [ow] in General American. See [[IPA phonetic symbol 〚w〛|IPA phonetic symbol  <nowiki>[w]</nowiki>]].
  
 
The habitual notation for General American is '''/oʊ/''', however in a broad notation /əʊ/ can be used; it could also be the other way around, using /oʊ/ for both General American and Received Pronunciation. In this website /əʊ/ is used.
 
The habitual notation for General American is '''/oʊ/''', however in a broad notation /əʊ/ can be used; it could also be the other way around, using /oʊ/ for both General American and Received Pronunciation. In this website /əʊ/ is used.
  
In strict IPA diphthongs need an inverted breve under their less prominent vowel: /ə<span style="letter-spacing:-0.55em">ʊ &#815;</span>&nbsp;&thinsp;/ or /o<span style="letter-spacing:-0.55em">ʊ &#815;</span>&nbsp;&thinsp;/. However in English a single /o/ is never used and the sequence /əʊ/ can only be interpreted as a diphthong. This means the inverted breve can be omitted in both conventions, British and American.
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In strict IPA diphthongs need an inverted breve under their less prominent vowel: /əʊ&#815;/ or /&#815;/. However in English a single /o/ is never used; this means that in American English /oʊ/ is unambiguously a dipthong. In British English the sequence /ə.ʊ/  (most certainly) doesn't occur, and therefore /əʊ/ can only be interpreted as a diphthong. This means the inverted breve can be omitted in both conventions, British and American.
  
 
This [[diphthong]] is informally called [[So-called “long o”|'''“long O”''']]. A better pronounceable name is '''the vowel of <small>GOAT</small>.'''
 
This [[diphthong]] is informally called [[So-called “long o”|'''“long O”''']]. A better pronounceable name is '''the vowel of <small>GOAT</small>.'''
 
==Common words==
 
==Common words==
 
Some common words which practice the pronunciation of /əʊ/ include the following:  
 
Some common words which practice the pronunciation of /əʊ/ include the following:  
* with '''"o"'''+[[magic e]]: alone - bone - close - code - episode - hole - home - hope - joke - lone - note - phone - role - stone - phone - pole - smoke - stole - tose - vote - whole
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* with '''"o"'''+[[magic e]]: alone, bone, close, code, episode, hole, home, hope, joke, lone, note, phone, pole, role, smoke, stole, stone, those, vote, whole
* with '''"o"''':  almost - associate - both - don't - focus - ghost - host - local - moment - most - notice - only - open - over - program - social - total - won't
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* with '''"o"''':  almost, associate, both, don't, focus, ghost, host, local, moment, most, notice, November, Oct'''o'''ber, only, open, over, program, social, total, won't
:ending in '''"o"''': ago - go - no - so
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:ending in '''"o"''': ago, go, no, so
:with '''"ol"''': control - fold - gold - hold - old - sold - soldier - told
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:with '''"ol"''': control, fold, gold, hold, old, sold, soldier, told
:anomalies with '''"o"''' and a double consonant: gross - poll - roll - toll
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:anomalies with '''"o"''' and a double consonant: gross, poll, roll, toll
* with '''"oa"''': boat - coat - goal - goat - road - roast - throat - toast
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* with '''"oa"''': approach, boat, coach, coast, coat, goal, goat, load, loan, road, roast, throat, toast
* with '''"oe"''': goes - Joe - toe
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* with '''"oe"''': goes, heroes, Joe, potatoes, toe
 
* with '''"ow"''': {{"ow" as /əʊ/}}
 
* with '''"ow"''': {{"ow" as /əʊ/}}
* with '''"ou"''': although - dough - shoulder - soul - though
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* with '''"ou"''': although, dough, shoulder, soul, though
*[[homophones]]: groan - grown; hole - whole; know - no; loan - lone; pole - poll; road - rode; role - roll; so - sew - sow; sole - soul; toe - tow;
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* with '''"au"''': taupe, haute
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 +
==[[Homophones]]==
 +
*groan - grown; hole - whole; know - no; loan - lone; pole - poll; road - rode; role - roll; so - sew - sow; sole - soul; toe - tow;
 +
 
 +
==[[Heteronyms]]==
 +
*bow: /bəʊ/ ''weapon'' - /baʊ/ ''inclination;'' dove: /dəʊv/ ''past tense of'' dive; - /dʌv/ ''bird;'' row: /rəʊ/ ''line'' - /raʊ/ ''quarrel;''
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==These words don't rhyme==
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*go - do; goes - {{extraInformation|does|The plural of "doe" rhymes with goes}}; home - come; know - cow; road - broad; toe - shoe; alone - abalone;
  
 
==Anticipated pronunciation difficulties depending on L1==
 
==Anticipated pronunciation difficulties depending on L1==
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*[wV]: "ua" as in ''cuadro,'' "ue" as in ''cuento,'' "ui" as in ''ruido,'' "uo" as in ''cuota''
 
*[wV]: "ua" as in ''cuadro,'' "ue" as in ''cuento,'' "ui" as in ''ruido,'' "uo" as in ''cuota''
 
</ref>
 
</ref>
The lack of [ow] explains why, even if they are fully capable of pronouncing [ow] (and hence /əʊ/) Spanish speakers tend to use the monophthong [o] which is very similar to '''[[IPA phoneme /ɒ/|/ɒ/]]''', i.e. without practice, they tend not to distinguish between "not" and "note" or, even between "want" and "won't". At the end of the word they have no problems; the Spanish pronunciation for the [[loan word]] ''show'' is [tʃow].
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The lack of [ow] explains why, even if they are fully capable of pronouncing [ow] (and hence /əʊ/) Spanish speakers tend to use the monophthong [o] which is very similar to '''[[IPA phoneme /ɒ/|/ɒ/]]''', i.e. without practice, they tend not to distinguish between "not" and "note" or, even between "want" and "won't". At the end of the word they have no problems; the Spanish pronunciation for the [[loanword]] ''show'' is [tʃow].
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Many Spanish speakers are confused by the spelling. Even if [ow] is present only in loan words (and compounds such as ''estad'''ou'''nidense)'' they immediately recognize "ou" as [ow]. For this reason many /aʊ/ words may be pronounced with [ow], such as "amount" as {{wrong+|[əˈmoʊnt]|This sounds like /əˈməʊnt/ in an American accent}} instead of /əˈmaʊnt/. See [[Decoding and spelling exercises: /əʊ/ vs /aʊ/]].
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==Notes and references==
 +
<references/> [[category:index]]
  
 
==See also==
 
==See also==
 
*[[Decoding written words]]
 
*[[Decoding written words]]
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*[[Decoding exercises: "ow"]]
 +
*[[Decoding and spelling exercises: /əʊ/ vs /aʊ/]]
 
*[[Decoding the letter O]]
 
*[[Decoding the letter O]]
 +
*[[Decoding exercises: /əʊl/]]
 
*[[Pronunciation exercises: /əʊ/ vs /ɒ/]]
 
*[[Pronunciation exercises: /əʊ/ vs /ɒ/]]
*[[Pronunciation exercises: "ow"]]
 
 
*[[Magic e]]
 
*[[Magic e]]
  
==Notes and references==
 
<references/>
 
  
==External links==
 
 
*[http://www.bl.uk/learning/langlit/sounds/case-studies/received-pronunciation/vowel-sounds-rp/ British Library: Learning - Sounds Familiar?]
 
*[http://www.bl.uk/learning/langlit/sounds/case-studies/received-pronunciation/vowel-sounds-rp/ British Library: Learning - Sounds Familiar?]
  
[[Category:IPA phonetic symbols|Vowel /ou/]]
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[[category:iPA phonetic symbols|Vowel /ou/]]
[[Category:Vowel phonemes|ou]]
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[[category:vowel phonemes|ou]]

Latest revision as of 04:55, 15 November 2020

Strict IPA
 

əʊ̯ oʊ̯

goat /gəʊ̯t, goʊ̯t/

American
Dictionaries

goat /goʊt/

British
Dictionaries

əʊ

goat /gəʊt/

In Received Pronunciation and in General American the IPA phonetic symbol /əʊ/ corresponds to the vowel sound in words like "goat", "note", and "know". The actual sound is [əʊ], [ɜʊ][1] or [əw][2] in Received Pronunciation and [oʊ] or [ow] in General American. See IPA phonetic symbol [w].

The habitual notation for General American is /oʊ/, however in a broad notation /əʊ/ can be used; it could also be the other way around, using /oʊ/ for both General American and Received Pronunciation. In this website /əʊ/ is used.

In strict IPA diphthongs need an inverted breve under their less prominent vowel: /əʊ̯/ or /oʊ̯/. However in English a single /o/ is never used; this means that in American English /oʊ/ is unambiguously a dipthong. In British English the sequence /ə.ʊ/ (most certainly) doesn't occur, and therefore /əʊ/ can only be interpreted as a diphthong. This means the inverted breve can be omitted in both conventions, British and American.

This diphthong is informally called “long O”. A better pronounceable name is the vowel of GOAT.

Common words[edit]

Some common words which practice the pronunciation of /əʊ/ include the following:

  • with "o"+magic e: alone, bone, close, code, episode, hole, home, hope, joke, lone, note, phone, pole, role, smoke, stole, stone, those, vote, whole
  • with "o": almost, associate, both, don't, focus, ghost, host, local, moment, most, notice, November, October, only, open, over, program, social, total, won't
ending in "o": ago, go, no, so
with "ol": control, fold, gold, hold, old, sold, soldier, told
anomalies with "o" and a double consonant: gross, poll, roll, toll
  • with "oa": approach, boat, coach, coast, coat, goal, goat, load, loan, road, roast, throat, toast
  • with "oe": goes, heroes, Joe, potatoes, toe
  • with "ow": arrow, below, blow, borrow, bowl, crow, elbow, fellow, flow, follow, grow, grown, growth, know, low, narrow, owe, own, row (line), shadow, show, slow, snow, throw, tomorrow, tow, window, yellow
  • with "ou": although, dough, shoulder, soul, though
  • with "au": taupe, haute

Homophones[edit]

  • groan - grown; hole - whole; know - no; loan - lone; pole - poll; road - rode; role - roll; so - sew - sow; sole - soul; toe - tow;

Heteronyms[edit]

  • bow: /bəʊ/ weapon - /baʊ/ inclination; dove: /dəʊv/ past tense of dive; - /dʌv/ bird; row: /rəʊ/ line - /raʊ/ quarrel;

These words don't rhyme[edit]

  • go - do; goes - does; home - come; know - cow; road - broad; toe - shoe; alone - abalone;

Anticipated pronunciation difficulties depending on L1[edit]

Preconceived ideas and other interferences from L1 obviously interfere in many cases with how students perceive - and pronounce - sounds/words in English. The following sections aims to point out some of the most typical difficulties teachers and students may encounter regarding pronunciation.

Spanish[edit]

Spanish has many diphthongs with "u" and "i", and the only combinations that don't exist are "iu" [iw] and "ou" [ow].[3] The lack of [ow] explains why, even if they are fully capable of pronouncing [ow] (and hence /əʊ/) Spanish speakers tend to use the monophthong [o] which is very similar to /ɒ/, i.e. without practice, they tend not to distinguish between "not" and "note" or, even between "want" and "won't". At the end of the word they have no problems; the Spanish pronunciation for the loanword show is [tʃow].

Many Spanish speakers are confused by the spelling. Even if [ow] is present only in loan words (and compounds such as estadounidense) they immediately recognize "ou" as [ow]. For this reason many /aʊ/ words may be pronounced with [ow], such as "amount" as *[əˈmoʊnt] instead of /əˈmaʊnt/. See Decoding and spelling exercises: /əʊ/ vs /aʊ/.

Notes and references[edit]

  1. John Wells, IPA transcription systems for English, 2001-08-03.
  2. Geoff Lindsey, The British English vowel system, 8 March 2012.
  3. List of Spanish diphthongs
    • [Vj]: "ai" as in baile, "ei" as in reina, "oi" as in boina, "ui" as in cuido
    • [Vw]: "au" as in auto, "eu" as in Eugenia
    • [jV]: "ia" as in viaje, "ie" as in ciego, "io" as in piojo, "iu" as in ciudad
    • [wV]: "ua" as in cuadro, "ue" as in cuento, "ui" as in ruido, "uo" as in cuota

See also[edit]