IPA phoneme /ŋ/
In Received Pronunciation, the IPA phonetic symbol /ŋ/ corresponds to the final consonant sound in words like "sang", "sing", "song" and "sung" and, of course -ing forms. Not all words with "ng" have that /ŋ/: cf. angle and angel. On the other hand, it should be pointed out that /ŋ/ is often, but not always, followed by /g/ cf. singer vs single or long vs longer.
- with /æ/: bang - gang - hang - hanger - hanging - rang - sang - slang;
- with /æ/ + /ŋ/ + /g/: anger - angle - angry - language - languid;
- with /æ/ + /ŋ/ + /k/: ankle - bank - drank - handkerchief - rank - sanction - sank - stank - tank - thank;
- with /e/: length - strength;
- with /i/: bring - ring - sing - singer - spring - sting - string - swing - thing - wing - wring;
- with /i/ + /ŋ/ + /g/: linger - single;
- with /i/ + /ŋ/ + /k/: blink - drink - ink - link - sink - sprinkler - stink - think - twinkle - rink - wink - wrinkle;
- with /ʌ/: lung - sung - tongue;
- with /ʌ/ + /ŋ/ + /g/: hunger - hungry;
- with /ʌ/ + /ŋ/ + /k/: bunk - dunk - function - junction - trunk - uncle;
See main article Homophone.
Anticipated pronunciation difficulties depending on L1
Preconceived ideas and other interferences from L1 obviously interfere in many cases with how students perceive - and pronounce - sounds/words in English. The following section aims to point out some of the most typical difficulties teachers and students may encounter regarding pronunciation.
At the back of every native Spanish speaker's mind is that nagging doubt as to whether to pronounce any g they see as /dʒ/, as in age or /g/ as in bag.