Decoding the letter D

From Teflpedia

soldier
/ˈsəʊldʒər/

t

helped
/helpt/

d

good
/gʊd/

The letter D, lower case d (pronounced /diː/) normally represents IPA phoneme /d/. For examples see IPA phoneme /d/.

As /t/

Main article: Past tense pronunciation

In the regular past tense of verbs ending in unvoiced consonants excluding /t/, the suffix "-ed" sounds /t/.

Examples:

  • /f/: laughed /lɑːft/BrE /læft/AmE
  • /k/: worked /wɜːrkt/
  • /p/: helped /helpt/
  • /s/: placed /pleɪst/
  • /ʃ/: wished /wɪʃt/
  • /tʃ/: reached /riːtʃt/
  • /θ/: frothed /frɒθt/BrE /frɔːθt/AmE.

In some consonant clusters the previous consonant may be elided.

  • asked /ɑːskt/BrE or /ɑːst/BrE - /æskt/AmE or /æst/AmE
  • jumped /dʒʌmpt/ or /dʒʌmt/

As /dʒ/

See also IPA phoneme /dʒ/

  • "di" as /dʒə/: soldier
  • "dg" as /dʒ/: bridge - budget - edge - judge - knowledge
  • "dj" as /dʒ/: adjacent - adjective - adjust
  • "du" as /dʒuː/ or /dʒʊ/: education - gradual - graduate - individual - schedule /ˈskedʒuːl/AmE /ˈʃedjuːl/BrE
  • "du" as /dʒə/: procedure

Silent "d"

  • handkerchief /ˈhæŋkərtʃɪf, ˈhæŋkərtʃiːf/ - handsome - sandwich /ˈsænwɪtʃ, ˈsænwɪdʒ, ˈsændwɪtʃ, ˈsændwɪdʒ/ - thousandth - Wednesday - Windsor
  • grandfather - grandmother - granddaughter - grandson

See also