Difference between revisions of "Decoding exercises: "ng""

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Together with the article on [[possible pronunciation difficulties]], this page sets out some common (or not...) [[words]] [[teachers]] can use to help their [[students]] become more aware of how they can improve their [[pronunciation]] of the different sounds corresponding to words containing "ng".
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{{IPA symbol|ndʒ|Decoding exercises: "ng"|danger /ˈdeɪndʒər/}}
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{{IPA symbol|ng|Decoding exercises: "ng"|anger /ˈæŋɡər/}}
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{{IPA symbol|ŋ|IPA phoneme /ŋ/|singer /ˈsɪŋər/}}
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{{IPA}}
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Together with the article on [[possible pronunciation difficulties]], this page sets out some common (or not...) [[words]] [[teachers]] can use to help their [[students]] become more aware of how they can [[Decoding written words|sound out]] more correctly the different sounds corresponding to words containing "ng".
  
 
More often than not, these supposed difficulties depend more on the interference of L1 than on the actual difficulties posed by English, and many, if not most students will greatly improve their pronunciation by simply becoming aware of certain differences - together with a minimum of practice.  
 
More often than not, these supposed difficulties depend more on the interference of L1 than on the actual difficulties posed by English, and many, if not most students will greatly improve their pronunciation by simply becoming aware of certain differences - together with a minimum of practice.  
  
Don't forget that [[intonation]], [[linking]] and [[stress]], both for individual words and for [[Stress-timed language|sentence stress]], are also, of course, of vital importance in [[speaking]] better English.
+
Don't forget that [[intonation]], [[linking]] and [[stress]], both for individual words and for [[Stress#Sentence stress|sentence stress]], are also, of course, of vital importance in [[speaking]] better English.
  
 
In English, both in [[Received Pronunciation]] and in [[General American]], "ng" often corresponds to the final [[consonant]] sound of [[IPA]] [[phonetic symbol]] [[IPA phoneme /ŋ/|'''/ŋ/''']] in words like "sang", "sing", "song" and "sung" and, of course [[-ing form]]s. However, not all words with "ng" have that '''/ŋ/''': cf. ''angle'' and ''angel''.  
 
In English, both in [[Received Pronunciation]] and in [[General American]], "ng" often corresponds to the final [[consonant]] sound of [[IPA]] [[phonetic symbol]] [[IPA phoneme /ŋ/|'''/ŋ/''']] in words like "sang", "sing", "song" and "sung" and, of course [[-ing form]]s. However, not all words with "ng" have that '''/ŋ/''': cf. ''angle'' and ''angel''.  
  
 
==As /ŋ/==
 
==As /ŋ/==
*[[IPA phoneme /æ/|with '''/æ/''']]: bang - gang - hang - hanger - hanging - rang - sang - slang;
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*[[IPA phoneme /æ/|with '''/æ/''']]: bang - gang - hang - hanger - hanging - rang - sang - slang
*[[IPA phoneme /ɪ/|with '''/ɪ/''']]: bring - ring - sing - singer - sting - string - swing - thing - wing - wring;
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*[[IPA phoneme /ɪ/|with '''/ɪ/''']]: bring - during - evening - king - morning - ring - sing - singer - spring - sting - string - swing - thing - wing - wring
*[[IPA phoneme /ɒ/|with '''/ɒ/''']]{{bre}} or [[IPA phoneme /ɔː/|'''/ɔː/''']]{{ame}}: belong - long - song - strong - wrong
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*[[IPA phoneme /ɒ/|with '''/ɒ/''']]{{bre}} or [[Phoneme /ɔː/ in General American|'''/ɔː/''']]{{ame}}: along - belong - long - song - strong - wrong
*[[IPA phoneme /ʌ/|with '''/ʌ/''']]: hung - lung - sung - tongue;
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*[[IPA phoneme /ʌ/|with '''/ʌ/''']]: among - hung - lung - sung - tongue - young
  
 
==As /ŋg/==
 
==As /ŋg/==
*/æŋg/: anger - angle - angry - language - languid - tangle;
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*with /æ/: anger - angle - angry - language - languid - tangle
*/ɪŋg/: finger - linger - single;
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*with /{{e}}/: penguin
*/ʌŋg/: fungus - hunger - hungry;
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*with /ɪ/: bingo - finger - linger - single
*Comparatives: longer/longest - stronger/strongest - younger/youngest
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*with /ɒ/: mongoose
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*with /ʌ/: fungus - hunger - hungry - mongrel
 +
*Comparatives
 +
:*with /ɒ,{{bre}} ɔː{{ame}}/: longer/longest - stronger/strongest
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:*with /ʌ/: younger/youngest
 +
 
 +
==As /ng/==
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In careful pronunciation it is possible to pronounce [ng]. However often these words are pronounced [ŋg]. See [[IPA phoneme /n/#Assimilation|IPA phoneme /n/ § Assimilation]].
 +
*congratulate - downgrade - engage - engrave - ingrown - ongoing - ungrateful
  
 
==As /ŋk/==
 
==As /ŋk/==
*length - strength;
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*length /leŋkθ, leŋθ/<ref>Collins English Dictionary, [http://www.collinsdictionary.com/dictionary/english/length length]</ref> - strength /streŋkθ,<ref name=RandomHouse>''Dictionary.com Unabridged.'' Random House, Inc., [http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/strength strength]</ref> streŋθ<ref name=RandomHouse/><ref>Collins English Dictionary, [http://www.collinsdictionary.com/dictionary/english/strength strength]</ref>/
  
 
==As /ndʒ/==
 
==As /ndʒ/==
*mid-position pronunciation of /n/ + [[IPA phoneme /dʒ/|'''/dʒ/''']]: angel - bungee - danger;
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*mid-position pronunciation of /n/ + [[IPA phoneme /dʒ/|'''/dʒ/''']]: angel - bungee - danger - engine - engineer - passenger
*final pronunciation of /ndʒ/: arrange - binge - fringe - hinge - lounge - singe - orange - revenge - sponge - whinge;
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*final pronunciation of /ndʒ/: arrange - binge - challenge - change - engage - fringe - hinge - lounge - orange - range - revenge - singe - sponge - strange - whinge{{brVocab}} ''(complain)''
  
 
==Homophones==
 
==Homophones==
 
''See main article [[Homophone]].''
 
''See main article [[Homophone]].''
  
*ring/wring
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*hangar - hanger; ring - wring
  
 
==Others==
 
==Others==
 
*''fungi'' can be pronounced /ˈfʌŋɡaɪ/; /ˈfʌndʒaɪ/ or /ˈfʌndʒɪ/<ref>[http://www.collinsdictionary.com/dictionary/english/fungi?showCookiePolicy=true fungi] [[Collins English Dictionary]]</ref>
 
*''fungi'' can be pronounced /ˈfʌŋɡaɪ/; /ˈfʌndʒaɪ/ or /ˈfʌndʒɪ/<ref>[http://www.collinsdictionary.com/dictionary/english/fungi?showCookiePolicy=true fungi] [[Collins English Dictionary]]</ref>
*The Vietnamese last name Nguyen is anglicized as /wɪn/<ref>BBC News, [http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-asia-23501757 Vietnam: Where saying 'I love you' is impossible], section 10 ''Half of Vietnamese share a surname few foreigners can pronounce''</ref>
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*The Vietnamese last name Nguyen is anglicized as /wɪn/<ref>BBC News, [http://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-23501757 Vietnam: Where saying 'I love you' is impossible], section 10 ''Half of Vietnamese share a surname few foreigners can pronounce''</ref>
  
 
==Anticipated pronunciation difficulties depending on L1==
 
==Anticipated pronunciation difficulties depending on L1==
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*[http://www.bl.uk/learning/langlit/sounds/case-studies/received-pronunciation/consonants/ British Library: Learning - Sounds Familiar?]
 
*[http://www.bl.uk/learning/langlit/sounds/case-studies/received-pronunciation/consonants/ British Library: Learning - Sounds Familiar?]
  
[[Category:Spelling]]
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[[Category:Decoding written words|ng]]
[[Category:Pronunciation exercises|ng]]
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[[Category:Spelling|ng]]

Revision as of 21:52, 21 March 2018

ndʒ

danger /ˈdeɪndʒər/

ng

anger /ˈæŋɡər/

ŋ

singer /ˈsɪŋər/

IPA vowels
æ ɑː
trap father - start
e
dress face square
ɪ ɪə
kit fleece near
ɒ əʊ ɔː
lot goat taught
ʊ ʊə
foot goose mature
juː jʊə
cute cure
ʌ ə ɜː
strut comma nurse
ɔɪ
price mouth choice
IPA consonants
Normal sound: /b, d, f, g, h, k, l, m, n, p, r, s, t, v, w, z/
 ʃ  ŋ
show church sing
ʒ  j 
usual judge you
θ ð s
think that see
IPA Stress
ˈ Primary stress
hotel /həʊˈtel/
ˌ Secondary stress
understand
/ˌʌndərˈstænd/
IPA Syllabification
. nitrate /ˈnaɪ.treɪt/, night-rate /ˈnaɪt.reɪt/

Together with the article on possible pronunciation difficulties, this page sets out some common (or not...) words teachers can use to help their students become more aware of how they can sound out more correctly the different sounds corresponding to words containing "ng".

More often than not, these supposed difficulties depend more on the interference of L1 than on the actual difficulties posed by English, and many, if not most students will greatly improve their pronunciation by simply becoming aware of certain differences - together with a minimum of practice.

Don't forget that intonation, linking and stress, both for individual words and for sentence stress, are also, of course, of vital importance in speaking better English.

In English, both in Received Pronunciation and in General American, "ng" often corresponds to the final consonant sound of IPA phonetic symbol /ŋ/ in words like "sang", "sing", "song" and "sung" and, of course -ing forms. However, not all words with "ng" have that /ŋ/: cf. angle and angel.

As /ŋ/

  • with /æ/: bang - gang - hang - hanger - hanging - rang - sang - slang
  • with /ɪ/: bring - during - evening - king - morning - ring - sing - singer - spring - sting - string - swing - thing - wing - wring
  • with /ɒ/BrE or /ɔː/AmE: along - belong - long - song - strong - wrong
  • with /ʌ/: among - hung - lung - sung - tongue - young

As /ŋg/

  • with /æ/: anger - angle - angry - language - languid - tangle
  • with /e/: penguin
  • with /ɪ/: bingo - finger - linger - single
  • with /ɒ/: mongoose
  • with /ʌ/: fungus - hunger - hungry - mongrel
  • Comparatives
  • with /ɒ,BrE ɔːAmE/: longer/longest - stronger/strongest
  • with /ʌ/: younger/youngest

As /ng/

In careful pronunciation it is possible to pronounce [ng]. However often these words are pronounced [ŋg]. See IPA phoneme /n/ § Assimilation.

  • congratulate - downgrade - engage - engrave - ingrown - ongoing - ungrateful

As /ŋk/

  • length /leŋkθ, leŋθ/[1] - strength /streŋkθ,[2] streŋθ[2][3]/

As /ndʒ/

  • mid-position pronunciation of /n/ + /dʒ/: angel - bungee - danger - engine - engineer - passenger
  • final pronunciation of /ndʒ/: arrange - binge - challenge - change - engage - fringe - hinge - lounge - orange - range - revenge - singe - sponge - strange - whingeBrE (complain)

Homophones

See main article Homophone.

  • hangar - hanger; ring - wring

Others

  • fungi can be pronounced /ˈfʌŋɡaɪ/; /ˈfʌndʒaɪ/ or /ˈfʌndʒɪ/[4]
  • The Vietnamese last name Nguyen is anglicized as /wɪn/[5]

Anticipated pronunciation difficulties depending on L1

Preconceived ideas and other interferences from L1 obviously interfere in many cases with how students perceive - and pronounce - sounds/words in English. The following section aims to point out some of the most typical difficulties teachers and students may encounter regarding pronunciation.

Spanish

At the back of every native Spanish speaker's mind is that nagging doubt as to whether to pronounce any g they see as /dʒ/, as in age or /g/ as in bag. This means that Spanish speakers habitually pronounce sing as */sɪŋg/ instead of /sɪŋ/ and doubt if it is /ˈæŋgər/ or */ˈændʒər/.

See also

References

  1. Collins English Dictionary, length
  2. 2.0 2.1 Dictionary.com Unabridged. Random House, Inc., strength
  3. Collins English Dictionary, strength
  4. fungi Collins English Dictionary
  5. BBC News, Vietnam: Where saying 'I love you' is impossible, section 10 Half of Vietnamese share a surname few foreigners can pronounce

External links