Cot-caught merger

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Revision as of 20:43, 13 December 2016 by Ghoti (talk | contribs) (Adding Europe)

In many parts of North America (about half the United States and nearly all of Canada)[1][2] /ɑː/ and /ɔː/ sound the same. This is in addition to the father-bother merger, where /ɑː/ and /ɒ/ sound the same. This means that caught /ɔː/, cot /ɒ/, father /ɑː/ and bother /ɒ/ have all the same stressed vowel /ɑː/. In this accent /ɔː/ appears only followed by /r/: north, force.

This accent is so prevalent that it is used in Merriam-Webster's Learner's Dictionary and in Cambridge Dictionaries Online for British English, US label. Note that Cambridge Dictionaries Online list two different American pronunciations, the one in Essential American English doesn't have the merger.

It can be conjectured that the spread of this merger via mass media has made some particular “modern” words to be pronounced with /ɑː/ even in dialects that have /ɔː/.[3] For example "astronaut" pronounced as /ˈæstrəˌnɑːt/[4] in addition to /ˈæstrəˌnɔːt/.

Other names for this merger (better for those who have it) are "LOT - THOUGHT merger" or "PALM - LOT - THOUGHT merger". There is an area in the United States (in New England) where "lot" and "thought" are merged as [ɒ] but "palm"/"father" is different (as [ɑ]). This means that strictly speaking "LOT - THOUGHT merger" and "PALM - LOT - THOUGHT merger" are different concepts.

The cot-caught merger is present also in Europe, but there the father-bother merger does not appear. The rest of this article is about the North American merge.

Sample word Merriam Webster's
Learner's Dictionary
Cambridge Dictionaries
British English - US
Cambridge Dictionaries
Essential American English
Most American Dictionaries
(if they use IPA)
palm, father [ɑː] /ɑː/ /ɑ/ /ɑ/ /ɑː/
start [ɑɚ] /ɑːr/ /ɑr/ /ɑr/ /ɑːr/
safari [ɑr] /ɑːr/ /ɑr/ /ɑr/ /ɑːr/
lot [ɑː] /ɑː/ /ɑ/ /ɑ/ /ɒ/
sorry [ɑr] /ɔː/ /ɑr/ /ɑr/ /ɒr/
borrow [ɑr] /ɑː/ /ɑr/ /ɑr/ /ɒr/
orange [ɑr, or] /ɔr/ /ɔr, ɑr/ /ɔr/ BrE, ɔːAmE/
cloth [ɑː] /ɑː/ /ɔ/ /ɔ/ */ or /ɒBrE, ɔːAmE/
thought [ɑː] /ɑː/ /ɔ/ /ɔ/ /ɔː/
north [oɚ] /ɔːr/ /ɔr/ /ɔr/ /ɔːr/
moral [or] /ɔːr/ /ɔr, ɑr/ /ɔːr/ BrE, ɔːAmE/
force [oɚ] /ɔːr/ /ɔr/ /ɔr/ and sometimes /oʊr/ /ɔːr/
glory [or] /ɔːr/ /ɔr/ /ɔr/ and sometimes /oʊr/ /ɔːr/

Sometimes we mark the CLOTH vowel with an asterisk, as follows:

*: These words are pronounced with /ɔː/ in General American.

The cot-caught merger generates very few homophones.

  • bot (computer program; shortening of robot) - bought; collar - caller; cot - caught; don (put clothes on)/Don (nickname of Donald) - dawn/Dawn; stock - stalk; tot (very young child) - taught;

The PALM - LOT - THOUGHT merger generates even fewer homophones.

  • balkAmE - Bach (composer)

Phoneme /ɑː/ in the PALM - LOT - THOUGHT merger

This phonetics article is valid in an area that includes roughly 50% of North America but is not General American, the accent used in television.


start /stɑːrt/


palm /pɑːm/


thought /θɑːt/


lot /lɑːt/



lot /lɑt/

This article is valid in an area in North America where the following words have the same phoneme vowel: "start", "art", "palm", "spa", "lot", "stop", "thought" and "law".

Many people pronounce /ɑː/ and /ɑːr/ with different vowels (e.g. lodge as [lɑdʒ] and large as [lɑːrdʒ]); however since the difference is predictable there is no problem using the same symbol in both cases (e.g. /lɑːdʒ/ and /lɑːrdʒ/).

Common words

Some common words which practice the pronunciation of /ɑː/ include the following:

  • with "a": father, iguana, llama, piñata, wad, wander, want, wash, wasp, watch, water
  • with "al": almost, already, also, alter, always, false, salt
"al" as /ɑː/: calm, chalk, palm, talk, walk
  • with "all": ball, call, fall, hall, mall, small, wall, wallet
  • with "ar": are, aren't, arm, art, article, bar, car, charge, dark, department, far, farm, hard, harm, large, market, park, part, party, regard, smart, star, start, warrant, warranty
  • with "o": Boston, chocolate, cloth, cost, follow, gone, got, hot, job, long, lost, lot, not, off, offer, office, often, on, possible, probably, problem, process, product, shop, song, strong, stop, top, wrong
  • with "oa": abroad, broad
  • with "ough": cough, ought, thought
past tense and past participle: bought, brought, fought, sought, thought
  • with "aw": dawn, draw, flaw, hawk, jaw, law, lawn, raw, saw, shawl, thaw, yawn
  • with "au": auction, August, Aussie, austerity, Australia, Austria, author, autumn, cause, clause, daughter, fault, launch, pause
past tense and past participle: caught - taught
  • /ɑː/ or /ʌ/: because, what

Spelling anomalies

  • heart, knowledge


  • bomb - balm; caller - collar; knot - not;

/ɑːr/ or /ɔːr/

See Pronunciation exercises: "orV" and "orrV"

Only the following five words are pronounced with /ɑː/ in this accent.[5][6] Cambridge Dictonaries (“US” label) only agree in three words,[7] marked with (*).

  • borrow,(*) morrow(*) (shortening of "tomorrow"), sorrow, sorry, tomorrow(*)

According to Wikipedia, the following words are pronounced with /ɑː/ by some speakers and with /ɔː/ by others.[5] Only words marked with (*) have two pronunciations in Merriam-Webster's Learner's Dictionary; the rest have only /or/, equivalent to Teflpedia's /ɔːr/.[8]

  • corridor, euphoric, foreign, forest, Florida,(*) historic, horrible, majority, minority, moral, orange,(*) Oregon, origin, porridge, priority, quarantine, quarrel, sorority, warranty, warren, warrior

Anticipated pronunciation difficulties depending on L1


In Latin America American English is taught (the United Kingdom is far away). Spanish speakers tend to pronounce /ɑː/ according to the spelling. They will pronounce "palm" as [pam] and "lot" as *[lot].

See also


  1. William Labov,The Organization of Dialect Diversity in North America, The o/oh merger [i.e. The /ɑː - ɔː/ merger].
  2. Wikipedia, Phonological history of English low back vowels § Cot–caught merger. Retrieved 14 April 2016.
  3. JeffinNYC in Antimoon Forum, "cot" and "caught", page 1, June 22, 2010
  4. Random House Dictionary in, astronaut.
  5. 5.0 5.1 Wikipedia, English-language vowel changes before historic /r/ § Mergers of /ɒr-/ and /ɔːr-/. Retreived 14 May 2015.
  6. Merriam-Webster's Learner's Dictionary. Note that this dictionary writes /ɑː/ in "palm" and "lot", and it writes /ɑ/ in "safari". Teflpedia always uses /ɑː/.
  7. Cambridge Dictionaries Online - British English. We don't reference the American English section, because an unmerged accent is reported there.
  8. Merriam-Webster's Learner's Dictionary.

External links