Difference between revisions of "-ed"

From Teflpedia
(Pronunciation)
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There are three possible sounds for this morpheme; /d/, /ɪd/ and /t/.  The pronunciation depends on the preceding final sound of the [[stem]] to which -ed is bound.
 
There are three possible sounds for this morpheme; /d/, /ɪd/ and /t/.  The pronunciation depends on the preceding final sound of the [[stem]] to which -ed is bound.
  
For all stems that end with [[vowel sound]]s and [[voiced consonant]]s (except for the voiced consonant /d/) and the “-ed” is pronounced /d/.
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{|class="wikitable"
 
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! Final stem sound
''opened'', ''called'', ''seemed'' and ''agreed''.
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! Pronunciation
 
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! Examples
For all stems that end with unvoiced consonants and the “ed” is pronounced /t/ (except for the voiceless consonant /t/).
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! Notes
 
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|-
These consonants are /f/, /k/, /p/, /s/, /ʃ/, /tʃ/ and /θ/.
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| /t/ or /d/
 
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| /-ɪd/
Say the following: ''pushed, helped, liked'' and ''reduced''. A /t/ sound is added at the end of these verbs.
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| wan'''ted''', lif'''ted''', nee'''ded''', compu'''ted''', estima'''ted''', and investiga'''ted'''.
 
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| This is the strongest pronunciation, and the one that historically existed originally.
When a stem ends with either /d/ or a /t/ we have to pronounce the full “ed” sound as a separate syllable: /-ɪd/, e.g. wan'''ted''', lif'''ted''', nee'''ded''', compu'''ted''', estima'''ted''', and investiga'''ted'''.
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|-
 
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| All [[vowel sound]]s and [[voiced consonant]]s (except for the voiced consonant /d/)
The good news is that the difference between the “t” and “d” sound is not that great. The important thing is to differentiate between the “t” “d” pair on the one hand, and the set of verbs ending “ed”.
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| /-d/
 
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| ''opened'', ''called'', ''seemed'', ''agreed''.
<!-- this seems to be part of a lesson ==Practice==
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| This is a reduced form of /ɪd/
 
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|-
I opened the door, invited her in and asked her what she wanted.  She walked in as if she owned the place and, when she replied, she indicated that she wanted to talk about buying my island.
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| All unvoiced consonants, i.e. /f/, /k/, /p/, /s/, /ʃ/, /tʃ/ and /θ/
 
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| /-t/
I was very surprised and stated that my island was not for sale and that I had not planned to sell it. She persisted and insisted that I had responded without thinking and offered me 2,000,000 pounds.
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|
 
 
I became annoyed and ordered her out.  I demanded that she depart my island and I informed her that she wasn’t expected back.
 
-->
 
 
 
===Examples of regular verbs with the /t/ sound===
 
 
*/ft/: golfed, proofed, sniffed, stuffed
 
*/ft/: golfed, proofed, sniffed, stuffed
 
*/kt/: cooked, hooked, lacked, licked, liked, looked, networked, picked, talked, walked, worked
 
*/kt/: cooked, hooked, lacked, licked, liked, looked, networked, picked, talked, walked, worked
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*/ʃt/: brushed, crashed, distinguished, extinguished, finished, pushed, wished
 
*/ʃt/: brushed, crashed, distinguished, extinguished, finished, pushed, wished
 
*/tʃt/: reached, touched, watched
 
*/tʃt/: reached, touched, watched
 
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| This is a reduced and [[devoiced]] form of /ɪd/
The past tense of "ask" is pronounced either /æskt,{{ame}} ɑːskt{{bre}}/ or /æst,{{ame}}, ɑːst{{bre}}/.
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|}
 
 
The past tense of "jump" is pronounced either /dʒʌmpt/ or /dʒʌmt/.
 
  
 
===Examples of regular verbs with the /d/ sound===
 
===Examples of regular verbs with the /d/ sound===

Revision as of 01:13, 11 October 2019

-ed (/ɪd/) is an English suffix (i.e. bound morpheme), which is found in the preterite, past participle and past participial modifiers (past participial adjectives and past participial adverbs) of all weak verbs (i.e. all regular verbs, and some irregular verbs). It is sometimes spelt -t (e.g. as is "burnt").

Form

This is found in all regular verbs, e.g. play --> played.

Some irregular verbs have an -ed form as teh preterite but not as the past participle, e.g. swell/swelled/swollen, prove/proved/proven, etc. . Thrive has a regular past participle, "thrived", but an irregular preterite "throve" as well as a regular one "thrived".

Often past participial adjectives ending -ed can have the additional suffix -ly attached to change them into past participial adverbs ending -edly.

Pronunciation

There are three possible sounds for this morpheme; /d/, /ɪd/ and /t/. The pronunciation depends on the preceding final sound of the stem to which -ed is bound.

Final stem sound Pronunciation Examples Notes
/t/ or /d/ /-ɪd/ wanted, lifted, needed, computed, estimated, and investigated. This is the strongest pronunciation, and the one that historically existed originally.
All vowel sounds and voiced consonants (except for the voiced consonant /d/) /-d/ opened, called, seemed, agreed. This is a reduced form of /ɪd/
All unvoiced consonants, i.e. /f/, /k/, /p/, /s/, /ʃ/, /tʃ/ and /θ/ /-t/
  • /ft/: golfed, proofed, sniffed, stuffed
  • /kt/: cooked, hooked, lacked, licked, liked, looked, networked, picked, talked, walked, worked
  • /pt/: developed, helped, hopped, hoped, stopped
  • /st/: addressed, forced, increased, passed, produced, reduced
  • /ʃt/: brushed, crashed, distinguished, extinguished, finished, pushed, wished
  • /tʃt/: reached, touched, watched
This is a reduced and devoiced form of /ɪd/

Examples of regular verbs with the /d/ sound

  • vowel+/d/: agreed, allowed, applied, argued, denied, renewed, played, showed, stayed, tried
  • /dʒd/: changed, charged, managed
  • /gd/: cataloged,AmE catalogued, dragged, drugged
  • /ld/: called, pulled, traveled,AmE travelledBrE
  • /nd/: cleaned, earned, explained, gained, opened, owned, phoned, turned, warned
  • /ŋd/: belonged
  • /rd/ (in non-rhotic accents these verb end in a vowel sound + /d/): appeared, cared, offered, ordered, shared
  • /vd/: approved, believed, improved, lived, moved, received, resolved
  • /zd/: organised,BrE organized

Examples of regular verbs with the /ɪd/ sound

  • Finishing in "t" or "te": act, activate, adapt, compete, create, defeat, estimate, exist, infect, invite, lift, list, pollute, promote, reject, repeat, respect, result, shift, suggest, support, start, test, unite, want
  • Finishing in "d" or "de": add, blend, decide, defend, demand, divide, end, extend, include, invade, need, pretend, provide, succeed


Exceptions

The following words are not past tenses (or not always are past tenses) and therefore the pronunciation rules for past tense do not necessarily apply.

  • aged /ˈeɪdʒɪd/ adj. very old; noun very old people (adj. of the age of and the past tense of the verb age are pronounced /eɪdʒd/)
  • beloved /bɪˈlʌvɪd/ (also /bɪˈlʌvd/)
  • blessed /ˈblesɪd/ adj. holy (past tense of bless is /blest/)
  • crooked /ˈkrʊkɪd/
  • learned /ˈlɜːrnɪd/ (past tense of learn is /lɜːrnd/, also learnt /lɜːrnt/)
  • legged /ˈleɡɪd/ (as in long-legged)
  • naked /ˈneɪkɪd/
  • rugged /ˈrʌɡɪd/
  • sacred /ˈseɪkrɪd/
  • wicked /ˈwɪkɪd/
  • wretched /ˈretʃɪd/

Adverbs

These adverbs look like a past tense and the suffix -ly; however their pronunciation ends in /-ɪdliː/.[1]

  • allegedly /əˈledʒɪdliː/
  • fixedly /ˈfɪksɪdliː/
  • markedly /ˈmɑːrkɪdliː/
  • supposedly /səˈpəʊzɪdliː/

This is because the penultimate syllable is stressed.

If the verb doesn't end in a stressed vowel, the past tense pronunciation is used:

  • embarrassedly /ɪmˈbærəstliː/
  • determinedly /dɪˈtɜːrmɪndliː/


Anticipated pronunciation difficulties depending on L1

Preconceived ideas and other interferences from L1 obviously interfere in many cases with how students perceive - and pronounce - sounds/words in English. The following sections aims to point out some of the most typical difficulties teachers and students may encounter regarding pronunciation.

Spanish

Many Spanish speakers pronounce the "-ed" ending as a separate syllable, regardless of the ending sound of the verb. Special effort must be made so that the students don't pronounce */ˈɑːskɪd/, */ˈpʊʃɪd/, */ɪkˈspleɪnɪd/ or */ˈrəʊɪd/ (for asked, pushed, explained and rowed).

See also

References

External links