Difference between pages "Phoneme /ɔː/ in General American" and "Phoneme /ɔː/ in General American (international version)"

From Teflpedia
< Phoneme (Difference between pages)
(Common words: {{"o" as CLOTH}})
 
(Common words: {{"o" as CLOTH}})
 
Line 1: Line 1:
{{box|This [[phonetics]] article is adapted for [[General American]], with very little reference to other accents. See also [[Phoneme /ɔː/ in General American (international version)]]. For [[British English]] and [[received pronunciation]] please see [[IPA phoneme /ɔː/|IPA phoneme {{nw|/ɔː/}}]] and [[IPA phoneme /ɒ/|IPA phoneme {{nw|/ɒ/}}]].}}
+
{{box|This [[phonetics]] article is adapted for [[General American]], highlighting the differences with [[British English]] and [[received pronunciation]]. For a simple article see [[Phoneme /ɔː/ in General American]]. For [[received pronunciation]] see [[IPA phoneme /ɔː/|IPA phoneme {{nw|/ɔː/}}]] and [[IPA phoneme /ɒ/|IPA phoneme {{nw|/ɒ/}}]].}}
 
{{IPA symbol|ɔː|Phoneme /ɔː/ in General American|north /nɔːrθ/}}
 
{{IPA symbol|ɔː|Phoneme /ɔː/ in General American|north /nɔːrθ/}}
 
{{IPA symbol|ɔː|Phoneme /ɔː/ in General American|cloth /klɔːθ/}}
 
{{IPA symbol|ɔː|Phoneme /ɔː/ in General American|cloth /klɔːθ/}}
 
{{IPA symbol|ɔː|Phoneme /ɔː/ in General American|thought /θɔːt/}}
 
{{IPA symbol|ɔː|Phoneme /ɔː/ in General American|thought /θɔːt/}}
 +
In [[General American]] the [[IPA]] [[phonetic symbol]] '''/ɔː/''' corresponds to the [[vowel]] sound in words like "north", "force", "thought", and also "cloth" (the latter is pronounced [[IPA phoneme /ɒ/|/ɒ/]] in Received Pronunciation).
 
{{IPA}}
 
{{IPA}}
In [[General American]] the [[IPA]] [[phonetic symbol]] '''/ɔː/''' corresponds to the [[vowel]] sound in words like "north", "force", "thought" and "cloth".
+
In [[Received Pronunciation]], this [[phoneme]] is heard in  
 +
"north", "force", and "thought". Additionally, many people pronounce "sure" as /ʃɔːr/ instead of the more traditional /ʃʊər/. See [[IPA phoneme /ʊə/]].
  
In a [[Rhotic and non-rhotic accent|non-rhotic accent]] /ɔːr/ is pronounced [ɔː] unless it is followed by a vowel, i.e. when the spelling has an "r", it is normally silent unless it is followed by a vowel.
+
In Received Pronunciation /ɔːr/ is pronounced [ɔː] unless it is followed by a vowel, i.e. when the spelling has an "r", it is normally silent unless it is followed by a vowel.
  
 
In General American the "r" in /ɔːr/ is always pronounced. Many people pronounce /ɔː/ and /ɔːr/ with different vowels (e.g. sauce as [sɔs] and source as [sors]); however since the difference is predictable there is no problem using the same symbol in both cases (e.g. /sɔːs/ and /sɔːrs/).
 
In General American the "r" in /ɔːr/ is always pronounced. Many people pronounce /ɔː/ and /ɔːr/ with different vowels (e.g. sauce as [sɔs] and source as [sors]); however since the difference is predictable there is no problem using the same symbol in both cases (e.g. /sɔːs/ and /sɔːrs/).
Line 12: Line 14:
 
There are places in the United Kingdom where /ɔːr/ is pronounced [ɔːr], and places in North America where /r/ is silent.
 
There are places in the United Kingdom where /ɔːr/ is pronounced [ɔːr], and places in North America where /r/ is silent.
  
 +
[[File:Lot-cloth-thought.png|450px]]
 
==Common words==
 
==Common words==
 
Some common words containing '''/ɔː/''' include the following:  
 
Some common words containing '''/ɔː/''' include the following:  
Line 18: Line 21:
 
* with "ough": ought - thought
 
* with "ough": ought - thought
 
:past tense and past participle: bought - brought - fought - sought - thought
 
:past tense and past participle: bought - brought - fought - sought - thought
* with "a": warrant{{ame}} - warranty{{ame}} - wash{{ame}} - water
+
* with "a": warrant{{ame}} - warranty{{ame}} - water
 
* with "al": almost - already - alter - always - chalk - false - salt - talk - walk
 
* with "al": almost - already - alter - always - chalk - false - salt - talk - walk
 
* with "all": ball - call - fall - hall - mall - small - talk - walk - wall
 
* with "all": ball - call - fall - hall - mall - small - talk - walk - wall
Line 27: Line 30:
  
 
Words marked {{ame}} are pronounced with /ɒ/ in Received Pronunciation.
 
Words marked {{ame}} are pronounced with /ɒ/ in Received Pronunciation.
 
*because:
 
:AmE: /bɪˈkɔːz, bɪˈkʌz/
 
:BrE: /bɪˈkɒz, bɪˈkəz/
 
  
 
==/ɔːr/==
 
==/ɔːr/==
Some common words containing '''/ɔːr/''' include the following:
+
Some common words containing '''/ɔːr/''' include the following (note that the /r/ is silent in Received Pronunciation, unless it is followed by a vowel)
 
* with "or": afford - born - cork - door - floor - fork - horse - lord - more - nor - or - pork - score - short - store - storm - sword;  
 
* with "or": afford - born - cork - door - floor - fork - horse - lord - more - nor - or - pork - score - short - store - storm - sword;  
 
* with "oar": boar - board - oar -  roar - soar;
 
* with "oar": boar - board - oar -  roar - soar;
Line 39: Line 38:
 
* with "ar": quarter - war - warm - warn;  
 
* with "ar": quarter - war - warm - warn;  
  
[[Homophones]]: bored - board; or - oar - ore.
+
* [[homophones]]: bored/board - or/oar/ore.
 
 
 
==/ɔː/, /ɑː/ or /ɒ/==
 
==/ɔː/, /ɑː/ or /ɒ/==
Note that [[Phoneme /ɑː/ in General American|/ɒ/ and /ɑː/]] sound identically in most of North America.
+
Note that [[Phoneme /ɑː/ in General American|/ɒ/ and /ɑː/]] sound identically in most of North America. All these words have an /ɒ/ sound in [[Received Pronunciation]].
 
*alcoh'''o'''l - B'''o'''ston - ch'''o'''colate - gone - on - wash
 
*alcoh'''o'''l - B'''o'''ston - ch'''o'''colate - gone - on - wash
 
===/ɔːr/, /ɑːr/ or /ɒr/===
 
===/ɔːr/, /ɑːr/ or /ɒr/===
''See [[Pronunciation exercises: "orV" and "orrV"]]''
+
* borrow - Florida - orange - sorrow - sorry - tomorrow
  
The following 5 words are pronounced with /ɑː/ in General American and with /ɒ/ or /ɔː/ in other parts of North America:<ref name=Wikipedia>Wikipedia, [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/English-language_vowel_changes_before_historic_/r/#Historic_.22short_o.22_before_intervocalic_R English-language vowel changes before historic /r/ § Historic "short o" before intervocalic R]. Retreived 14 May 2015.</ref>
+
==Cot-caught merger==
 +
''Main article: [[Cot-caught merger]]''
  
*borrow - morrow (shortening of "tomorrow") - sorrow - sorry - tomorrow
+
In many parts of North America (about half the United States and all of Canada)<ref>William Labov,[http://babel.ling.upenn.edu/phono_atlas/ICSLP4/BW/ICSLP4BW.html The Organization of Dialect Diversity in North America], The o/oh merger [i.e. The /ɑː - ɔː/ merger].</ref> /ɑː/ and /ɔː/ sound the same. This is in addition to the father - bother merger, where /ɑː/ and /ɒ/ sound the same. This means that caught /ɔː/, cot /ɒ/, father /ɑː/ and bother /ɒ/ have all the same stressed vowel /ɑː/. In this accent /ɔː/ appears only followed by /r/: north, force.
 
 
The following words are pronounced with /ɔː/ in most of North America, including the General American dialect, and with /ɑː/ or /ɒ/ in specific parts of North America:<ref name=Wikipedia/>
 
 
 
*correspond - Florida - foreign - forest - historical - majority - moral - orange - origin - priority
 
 
 
==Cot-caught merger==
 
''Main article: [[Cot-caught merger]]
 
  
In many parts of North America (about half the United States and all of Canada)<ref>William Labov,[http://babel.ling.upenn.edu/phono_atlas/ICSLP4/BW/ICSLP4BW.html The Organization of Dialect Diversity in North America], The o/oh merger [i.e. The /ɑː - ɔː/ merger].</ref> /ɑː/ and /ɔː/ sound the same. This is in addition to the father - bother merger, where /ɑː/ and /ɒ/ sound the same. This means that caught /ɔː/, cot /ɒ/, father /ɑː/ and bother /ɒ/ have all the same stressed vowel /ɑː/. In this accent {{nw|/ɔː/}} appears only followed by /r/: north, force.
+
;Homophones
 +
The cot-caught merger generates very few [[homophone]]s.
 +
*bot (computer program; shortening of ''robot)'' - bought; collar - caller; cot - caught; don (put clothes on)/Don (nickname of Donald) - dawn/Dawn; stock - stalk;
  
 
==Anticipated pronunciation difficulties depending on L1==
 
==Anticipated pronunciation difficulties depending on L1==

Revision as of 17:36, 23 September 2015

This phonetics article is adapted for General American, highlighting the differences with British English and received pronunciation. For a simple article see Phoneme /ɔː/ in General American. For received pronunciation see IPA phoneme /ɔː/ and IPA phoneme /ɒ/.

ɔː

north /nɔːrθ/

ɔː

cloth /klɔːθ/

ɔː

thought /θɔːt/

In General American the IPA phonetic symbol /ɔː/ corresponds to the vowel sound in words like "north", "force", "thought", and also "cloth" (the latter is pronounced /ɒ/ in Received Pronunciation).

IPA vowels
æ ɑː
trap father - start
e
dress face square
ɪ ɪə
kit fleece near
ɒ əʊ ɔː
lot goat taught
ʊ ʊə
foot goose mature
juː jʊə
cute cure
ʌ ə ɜː
strut comma nurse
ɔɪ
price mouth choice
IPA consonants
Normal sound: /b, d, f, g, h, k, l, m, n, p, r, s, t, v, w, z/
 ʃ  ŋ
show church sing
ʒ  j 
usual judge you
θ ð s
think that see
IPA Stress
ˈ Primary stress
hotel /həʊˈtel/
ˌ Secondary stress
understand
/ˌʌndərˈstænd/
IPA Syllabification
. nitrate /ˈnaɪ.treɪt/, night-rate /ˈnaɪt.reɪt/

In Received Pronunciation, this phoneme is heard in "north", "force", and "thought". Additionally, many people pronounce "sure" as /ʃɔːr/ instead of the more traditional /ʃʊər/. See IPA phoneme /ʊə/.

In Received Pronunciation /ɔːr/ is pronounced [ɔː] unless it is followed by a vowel, i.e. when the spelling has an "r", it is normally silent unless it is followed by a vowel.

In General American the "r" in /ɔːr/ is always pronounced. Many people pronounce /ɔː/ and /ɔːr/ with different vowels (e.g. sauce as [sɔs] and source as [sors]); however since the difference is predictable there is no problem using the same symbol in both cases (e.g. /sɔːs/ and /sɔːrs/).

There are places in the United Kingdom where /ɔːr/ is pronounced [ɔːr], and places in North America where /r/ is silent.

Lot-cloth-thought.png

Common words

Some common words containing /ɔː/ include the following:

  • with "o"AmE: across, along, cloth, cost, cross, dog, gone, long, loss, lost, off, offer, office, often, soft, song, strong, wrong
  • with "oa": abroad - broad
  • with "ough": ought - thought
past tense and past participle: bought - brought - fought - sought - thought
  • with "a": warrantAmE - warrantyAmE - water
  • with "al": almost - already - alter - always - chalk - false - salt - talk - walk
  • with "all": ball - call - fall - hall - mall - small - talk - walk - wall
  • with "aw": dawn - flaw - hawk - jaw - law - lawn - raw - saw - shawl - thaw - yawn
  • with "au": auction - August - AussieAmE - austerity - AustraliaAmE - AustriaAmE - author - autumn - cause - clause - daughter - fault - launch
past tense and past participle: caught - taught
  • with "ou": coughAmE

Words marked AmE are pronounced with /ɒ/ in Received Pronunciation.

/ɔːr/

Some common words containing /ɔːr/ include the following (note that the /r/ is silent in Received Pronunciation, unless it is followed by a vowel)

  • with "or": afford - born - cork - door - floor - fork - horse - lord - more - nor - or - pork - score - short - store - storm - sword;
  • with "oar": boar - board - oar - roar - soar;
  • with "our": court - four - pour
  • with "ar": quarter - war - warm - warn;

/ɔː/, /ɑː/ or /ɒ/

Note that /ɒ/ and /ɑː/ sound identically in most of North America. All these words have an /ɒ/ sound in Received Pronunciation.

  • alcohol - Boston - chocolate - gone - on - wash

/ɔːr/, /ɑːr/ or /ɒr/

  • borrow - Florida - orange - sorrow - sorry - tomorrow

Cot-caught merger

Main article: Cot-caught merger

In many parts of North America (about half the United States and all of Canada)[1] /ɑː/ and /ɔː/ sound the same. This is in addition to the father - bother merger, where /ɑː/ and /ɒ/ sound the same. This means that caught /ɔː/, cot /ɒ/, father /ɑː/ and bother /ɒ/ have all the same stressed vowel /ɑː/. In this accent /ɔː/ appears only followed by /r/: north, force.

Homophones

The cot-caught merger generates very few homophones.

  • bot (computer program; shortening of robot) - bought; collar - caller; cot - caught; don (put clothes on)/Don (nickname of Donald) - dawn/Dawn; stock - stalk;

Anticipated pronunciation difficulties depending on L1

Preconceived ideas and other interferences from L1 obviously interfere in many cases with how students perceive - and pronounce - sounds/words in English. The following sections aims to point out some of the most typical difficulties teachers and students may encounter regarding pronunciation.

Spanish

Many Spanish speakers will pronounce the short o sound as /ɔː/ even when it should be pronounced /ɑː/: lot as */lɔːt/.

It is not uncommon to hear them pronouncing */ˈalsəʊ/ or */alˈtɜːrnatɪv/.

See also

References

  1. William Labov,The Organization of Dialect Diversity in North America, The o/oh merger [i.e. The /ɑː - ɔː/ merger].