Voiced velar nasal
In both Received Pronunciation and General American, the IPA phonetic symbol /ŋ/ corresponds to the final consonant sound in words like "sang", "sing", "song" and "sung" and, of course -ing forms. Not all words with "ng" have that /ŋ/: cf. angle and angel. On the other hand, it should be pointed out that /ŋ/ is often, but not always, followed by /g/ cf. singer vs single or long vs longer.
/ŋ/ is spelled "n" when followed by a /k/ sound: ankle, function, inquest.
/ŋ/ at the end of the word or followed by a vowel is always spelled "ng".
- with /æ/: bang - gang - hang - hanger - hanging - rang - sang - slang
- with /ɪ/: bring - evening - king - morning - ring - sing - singer - spring - sting - string - swing - thing - wing - wring
- with /ɒ/BrE or with /ɔː/AmE: along - belong - long - song - strong - wrong
- with /ʌ/: among - lung - sung - tongue - young
The spelling "ng" is sometimes pronounced /ŋg/.
- with /æ/: anger - angle - angry - language - languid
- with /ɪ/: English (also /ˈɪŋlɪʃ/) - finger - linger - single
- with /ɒ/: Congo
- with /ʌ/: Hungary - hunger - hungry
/ŋ/ - /ŋg/ alternation
In most words the root word and its derivatives sound similar: sing /sɪŋ/, singing /sɪŋɪŋ/.
Some particular words have "ng" pronounced /ŋ/ in the root and /ŋg/ in their derivatives: young /jʌŋ/, younger /jʌŋgər/.
- long - longer, longest
- strong - stronger, strongest
- young - younger, youngest
- diphthong - diphthongal
- prolong - prolongation
See also IPA phoneme /n/ § Assimilation.
- with /æ/: ankle - bank - blanket - drank - handkerchief /ˈhæŋkərtʃɪf/ - rank - sank - stank - tank - thank;
- with /ɪ/: blink - drink - ink - link - pink - sink - sprinkler - stink - think - twinkle - rink - wink - wrinkle;
- with /ɒ/: donkey
- with /ʌ/: bunk - bunker - dunk - monkey - trunk
- anchor - synchronisationBrE - synchronization
- concrete - distinction - function - junction - sanction - uncle;
- anxious - lynx - pharinx
- length /leŋkθ, leŋθ/ - strength /streŋkθ, streŋθ/
- anxiety /æŋˈzaɪətɪ/
See main article Homophone.
- ring - wring
Anticipated pronunciation difficulties depending on L1
Preconceived ideas and other interferences from L1 obviously interfere in many cases with how students perceive - and pronounce - sounds/words in English. The following section aims to point out some of the most typical difficulties teachers and students may encounter regarding pronunciation.
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