Voiced alveolar stop

From Teflpedia

d

day /deɪ/

In Received Pronunciation and in General American, the IPA phonetic symbol /d/ corresponds to the initial consonant sound in words like "day", and "dream"[1] and the final one in "bad" and "made".

This phoneme is very consistently spelled "d", however the letter "d" is pronounced /t/ in the past tense of verbs: "guessed" /ɡest/.

/d/ is a voiced consonant; its unvoiced counterpart is IPA phoneme /t/. Between vowels /t/ and /d/ may get neutralized as [ɾ] (a voiced consonant called alveolar flap). Then "butter" may be pronounced [ˈbʌɾər] and "ladder" may be pronounced [ˈlæɾər].

Common words[edit | edit source]

Some common words which practice the initial pronunciation of /d/ include the following:

  • daisy - day - deal - deer - development - different - dinosaur - dolphin - down - dress - duck - during

Some common words which practice the mid-position pronunciation of /d/ include the following:

  • already - body - condition - consider - idea - ladder - model - order - product - study - today - under

Some common words which practice the final position pronunciation of /d/ include the following:

  • bad - bed - child - feed - find - God - good - hide - include - mood - need - old - provide - side - wood

Assimilation[edit | edit source]

/sd/ may be pronounced /st/ in some words: the /d/ is devoiced because /s/ is unvoiced. This happended centuries ago with past tense pronunciation.

  • disdain /dɪsˈdeɪn, dɪˈsteɪn/[2]

/d.d/[edit | edit source]

Normally double "d" is pronounced as a single /d/ (as in "address" or "middle"). In the following examples two /d/'s are pronounced.

  • headdress - midday

Another example of /d.d/

  • upside-down

Anticipated pronunciation difficulties depending on L1[edit | edit source]

Preconceived ideas and other interferences from L1 obviously interfere in many cases with how students perceive - and pronounce - sounds/words in English. The following section aims to point out some of the most typical difficulties teachers and students may encounter regarding pronunciation.

Spanish[edit | edit source]

The main difficulty is the difference between /d/ and /ð/. See IPA phoneme /ð/.

References[edit | edit source]

  1. this sounds more like dʒ
  2. "disdain". Dictionary.com Unabridged. Random House, Inc.