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English IPA[edit]

rɪdʒaɪnə təreɪsə

The following table was originally taken from Wikipedia Help:IPA_for_English


IPA Examples
b buy, cab
d die, cad
ð thy, breathe, father
giant, badge, jam
f phi, caff
ɡ (ɡ) guy, bag
h high, ahead
j yes, yacht
k chi, sky, crack
l lie, sly, gal
m my, smile, cam
n nigh, snide, can
ŋ sang, sink, singer
ŋɡ finger
θ thigh, math
p pie, spy, cap
r rye, try, very[1]
s sigh, mass
ʃ shy, cash, emotion
t tie, sty, cat
China, catch
v vie, have
w wye, swine
hw why[2]
z xi, zoo, has
ʒ pleasure, vision, beige[3]
Marginal consonants
x ugh, loch, Chanukah[4]
ʔ uh-oh /ˈʌʔoʊ/
IPA Traditional monophthongs R-colored vowels[5]
ɑː balm, baht, father, bra ɑr bard, part, barn, snarl, star (also /ɑːr./)
ɒ bot, pod, John, doll[6] ɒr moral, forage
æ bat, pad, shall, ban ær barrow, marry
ɛ bet, bed, fell, men ɛr error, merry
bait, made, fail, vein, pay ɛər scared, cairn, there, Mary (/eɪr./)
ɪ bit, lid, fill, bin ɪr mirror, Sirius
beat, seed, feel, mean, sea ɪər beard, fierce, nearer, serious (/iːr./)
ɔː bought, Maud, dawn, fall, straw[7] ɔr born, for, aural (/ɔːr./)
boat, code, foal, bone, go[8] ɔər boar, four, more, oral (/oʊr./)[9]
ʊ foot, good, full ʊr courier
boot, food, fool, soon, chew ʊər boor, moor, tourist (/uːr./)[10]
ʌ butt, mud, dull, gun[11] ʌr borough, hurry
ɜr bird, hurt, curl, burn, furry (/ɝː/)[12]
Traditional diphthongs
bite, ride, file, fine, pie ɔɪ exploit, void, foil, coin, boy
bout, loud, foul, down, how juː cued, cute, mule, tune, queue[13]
Reduced vowels
ə Rosa’s, a mission ən button
i happy, serious[14] əm rhythm
ɨ, ɪ roses, emission [15] əl bottle
ʊ beautiful, curriculum ([jʊ])[16] ər perform, mercer (also /ɚ/)[12]
ɵ kilogram, omission[17]
Stress Syllabification
IPA Examples IPA Examples
ˈ intonation /ˌɪntɵˈneɪʃən/,[18]
battleship /ˈbætəlʃɪp/[19]
. shellfish /ˈʃel.fɪʃ/, selfish /ˈself.ɨʃ/
nitrate /ˈnaɪ.treɪt/, night-rate /ˈnaɪt.reɪt/
moai /ˈmoʊ.aɪ/[20]


  1. Although the IPA symbol [r] represents a trill, /r/ is widely used instead of /ɹ/ in broad transcriptions of English.
  2. /hw/ is not distinguished from /w/ in dialects with the wine-whine merger, such as RP and most varieties of GenAm.
  3. A number of English words, such as genre and garage, are pronounced with either /ʒ/ or /dʒ/.
  4. In most dialects, /x/ is replaced by /k/ in loch and by /h/ in Chanukah.
  5. In non-rhotic accent]]s such as RP, /r/ is not pronounced unless followed by a vowel. In some cases, /ɪər/ etc. may not be distinguished from /ɪr/ etc. When they are distinguished, the long vowels may be transcribed /iːr/ etc. by analogy with vowels not followed by /r/. If you notify us of this on the talk page, we will correct it.
  6. /ɒ/ is not distinguished from /ɑː/ in dialects with the father-bother merger]] such as GenAm.
  7. /ɔː/ is not distinguished from /ɑː/ (except before /r/) in dialects with the cot-caught merger such as some varieties of GenAm.
  8. Commonly transcribed /əʊ/ or /oː/.
  9. /ɔər/ is not distinguished from /ɔr/ in dialects with the horse-hoarse merger, which include most dialects of modern English.
  10. /ʊər/ is not distinguished from /ɔr/ in dialects with the pour-poor merger, including many younger speakers.
  11. This phoneme is not used in the northern half of England and some bordering parts of Wales. These words would take the ʊ vowel: there is no foot-strut split.
  12. 12.0 12.1 In some articles these are transcribed /ɝː/ and /ɚ/ when not followed by a vowel.
  13. In dialects with yod-dropping, /juː/ is pronounced the same as /uː/ after coronal consonants (/t/, /d/, /s/, /z/, /n/, /θ/, and /l/) in the same syllable, so that dew /djuː/ is pronounced the same as do /duː/. In dialects with yod-coalescence, /tj/, /dj/, /sj/ and /zj/ are pronounced /tʃ/, /dʒ/, /ʃ/ and /ʒ/, so that the first syllable in Tuesday is pronounced the same as choose.
  14. Pronounced /iː/ in dialects with the happY tensing, /ɪ/ in other dialects. British convention used to transcribe it with /ɪ/, but the OED and other influential dictionaries recently converted to /i/.
  15. Pronounced [ə] in Australian and many US dialects, and [ɪ] in Received Pronunciation. Many speakers freely alternate between a reduced [ɪ̈] and a reduced [ə]. Many phoneticians (vd. Olive & Greenwood 1993:322) and the OED uses the pseudo-IPA symbol ɪ [1], and Merriam–Webster uses ə̇.
  16. Pronounced [ʊ] in many dialects, [ə] in others. Many speakers freely alternate between a reduced [ʊ̈] and a reduced [ə]. The OED uses the pseudo-IPA symbol ʊ [2].
  17. Pronounced [ə] in many dialects, and [ɵw] or [əw] before another vowel, as in cooperate. Sometimes pronounced as a full /oʊ/, especially in careful speech. (Bolinger 1989) Usually transcribed as /ə(ʊ)/ (or similar ways of showing variation between /əʊ/ and /ə/) in British dictionaries.
  18. It is arguable that there is no phonemic distinction in English between primary and secondary stress (vd. Ladefoged 1993), but it is conventional to notate them as here.
  19. Full vowels following a stressed syllable, such as the ship in battleship, are marked with secondary stress in some dictionaries (Merriam-Webster), but not in others (the OED). Such syllables are not actually stressed.
  20. Syllables are indicated sparingly, where necessary to avoid confusion.