User:Rëdbl Speling/Rüls/l-m-n-r rül

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Wen /əl, əm, ən/ and /ər/ apër aftr a consnant letr, the vowel is supressd (provïded that nö dubl consnants apër). Exeptions noted belö.

l-m-n-r ends the word[edit]

The möst comn cäse is wen l-m-n-r ends the word. Patrn CVΛ#, where Λ is l-m-n-r, V is shwa and # is the end of the word.

  • /l/: äbl, aditionl, animl, avälabl, bütifl, capitl, centrl, exampl, fedrl, fïnl, genrl, hospitl, intrnationl, lëgl, levl, litl, löcl, medicl, modl, nätionl, naturl, norml, originl, pëpl, personl, politicl, possibl, professionl, propösl, severl, simpl, successfl, täbl, traditionl, travl, tötl, üsfl, wonderfl
  • /m/: albm, autm, botm, colm, criticism, custm, frëdm, ïtm, mecanism, problm, randm, rythm, symptm, systm, türism, victm
  • /n/: abandn, butn, certn, chärmn, citizn, comn, comparisn, dozn, ëvn, frïtn, gardn, gentlemn, hapn, hümn, kichn, lessn, lisn, mountn, ofn, oftn, öpn, persn, prisn, rësn, sudn, sësn, thretn, urbn, wepn, womn
  • /r/: actr, advïsr, bordr, dëlr, drïvr, editr, farmr, fingr, gathr, latr, manr, mastr, ministr, monitr, murdr, neibr, nëthr, nïthr, onr, önr, professr, propr, registr, reserchr, shärhöldr, shöldr, thëatr, tïgr, visitr, vötr, wintr

VrV[edit]

Consider the patrn V1rV2Λ where Λ is l-m-n, V1 sounds /æ, e, ɪ, ɒ/ or /ʌ/ and V2 sounds /ə/. In this cäs we ar forced to këp the vowel V2 sö that "baron" doesn't become "barn", wich mëns that V1 wd chänge from /æ/ to /ɑː/.

  • /æ/, not /ɑː/: baron, carol
  • /e/, not /ɜː/: erand, herald, peril
  • /ɒ/,BrE not /ɔː/BrE: forin, moral

Note that "forum" becomes "förm", and there is no conflict with "form". Similarly "parent" becomes "pärnt".

ΛVΛ[edit]

We considr the patrn Λ12#.

In the täbl belö we së words in traditionl speling. In yelö words that coud be confüsd if we supress shwa. Nöt that the cäse wen Λ1 is r was solvd in the prëvius section.

l m n r
l N/A film, helm, overwhelm, realm, elm
asylum, column, curriculum
kiln
m N/A
n N/A
r Solvd: curl, girl, pearl, twirl Solvd: alarm, confirm, form, storm Solvd: burn, concern, learn, warn N/A

Hër Λ is m-n-r. The combination "lm" can represent /ləm/ or /lm/. For example "film" and "colm" have a difrent number of sylabls. One alternativ woud be to forbid the combination "VlΛ" to represent an unwritn shwa. Nöt that Λ = n is very infrëquent (kiln) and /ləm/ is somwat frequent (melon).

Exampls:

  • With nö ambigüitis: asÿlum, curicülum, colum, solem
  • With ambigüitis: asÿlm, curicülm, colm, solm

l-m-n-r is in the last sylabl[edit]

Hër we considr the cäse wen l-m-n-r is in the last sylabl but is not the last sound. Pattern CVΛC...# where C... means one or more consnants.

  • /l/: bïföcls, herld
  • /m/: custms
  • /n/: absnce, absnt, acceptnce, accidnt, acomplishmnt, achëvmnt, adolesnt, aquäntnce, exelnce,
  • /r/: blizrd, cavrn, comrce

"Ce, ci, cy" / "ge, gi, gy" / "se" / "the"[edit]

The sëquences "ce", "ci", "cy" and "se" sounding /s/, "ge", "gi" and "gy" sounding /dʒ/ and "the" sounding /ð/ must bë preservd.

  • "c": cancer, lïcence, medicin, oficer, porceln, prodücer (compare with äcr)
  • "g": dänger, manager, passnger, religin, stränger, tënäger (compare with angr)
  • "s": anser, eräser,AmE eräsr,BrE loosen, morsel, worsen (compare with mïsr)
  • "th": father, gather, hëthen, lether, mother, other, together (compare with ëthr)

Nö dubl consnants[edit]

  • /l/: paralel (this is the önly exampl of /ləl/ in a 14000 word dictionary, and many dictionaris sä the pronunciätion is /lel/)
  • /m/: maximum, minimum
  • /n/: permnence, phenomenon
  • /r/: eror, manüfacturer, miror

l-m-n-r folöd by consnant[edit]

Hër we ar cnsidring any sylabl, exept the first sylabl, which is explaind in the next section.

In this cäse few ambigüitis arïs.

  • /l/: faclty, häzlnut, mantlpëce, novlty, penlty, simltänëus, sïmltänëus, üsflness
  • /m/: botmless, circmcision, circmspect, circmstance, cmbïn, cmbustion, cmpanion, cmpär, cntemplät
  • /n/: calndar, carpntr, clemncy, crtnly, comntätr
  • /r/: advrtïs, aftrnoon, aftrwrd, aftrwrds, alrgy, bitrness, butrflÿ, catrpilr, confrmätion, emrld, prfectionism

Exeptions:

  • g, c: ägency, indëcent
  • VrV: garantë, transparency

Shwa is the first vowel in the word[edit]

If shwa folöd bÿ l or r, supressing the shwa mäks the word too difrent from the pronunciátion. Exampls: carër is betr than crër, calamity is betr than clamity.

If shwa folöd bÿ n or m, supressing the shwa mäks the word unambigüus, or acceptbly ambigüus.

  • /ən/: fnatic, grnäd, phnetic, tnacity
  • /əm/: cmbatnt, cmbïn, dmension, flmingö, tmorrö

Other cäses[edit]

Hër we cnsidr shwa vowels that ar not in any of the folöing sitüätions:

  • in the last sylabl
  • in the first sylabl
  • l-m-n-r folöd by consnant

This mëns C1V1C2V2, where V1 is a vowel letr that sounds shwa, C2 is l-m-n-r and C1 is a difrent consnant.

Öld speling Pronunciätion Supressing /əl, əm, ən, ər/ Alternativ speling Comnt
/əl/
easily /ˈiː.zə.li, ˈiz.li/ ësly ësily
fertilize /ˈfɜːr.təlaɪz/ fertlïz /ˈfɜːrtlaɪz/ is very unlïkly
feudalism /ˈfjuːd.əlɪz.əm/ dlism /ˈfjuːd.lɪz.əm/ is very unlïkly
parallel /ˈpær.ələl, ˈpær.əlel/ paralel "parlel" can't be used because /æ/ woud be red as /ɑː/
/əm/
cinema // cinma cinema /ˈsɪn.mə/ is not sö unlïkly, compär with inmate
sacrament // sacrmnt sacramnt /ˈsækər.mənt/ is not impossbl, cmpär with undrmïn
/ən/
company // compny /ˈkʌmp.niː/ is very unlïkly
contaminate // contamnät contaminät /kənˈtæmneɪt/ is not sö unlïkly, cmpär with gymnast
/ər/
accelerate // accelrät accelerät /ˈækselreɪt/ or /ækˈselreɪt/ are not sö unlïkly, cmpär with rivlry
illiterate // ilitrat iliterat /ɪˈlɪt.rət/ is not sö unlïkly, cmpär with matress.
interest // intrest interest Since /ˈɪn.trəst/ exists, it's not üsefl to rëd /ˈɪn.tər.əst/
liberal /ˈlɪb.ər.əl, ˈlɪb.rəl/ librl liberl
macaroni /mæk.əˈrəʊ.niː/ macröni macaröni /mækˈrəʊniː/ is not sö unlïkely,cmpär wit democracy

The möst cnservativ decision is to say that patrn C1V1C2V2 nevr mäks V1 supressd. Howevr many words hav two comn pronunciätions,and others ar värisylabic words.

An intrmëdiat wd be: A shwa vowel befor "r" can't be supressd if the next vowel has the män stress: accelerät, macaröni. In dictionaris that mark sylabls, /ə/ and /r/ are in difrent sylabls.

The möst librl alternativ wd be supressing all shwa vowels, unless they must be kept becaus of other rüls.

Öld speling Pronunciätion Libral Intrmëdiat Cnservativ
/əl/
easily /ˈiː.zə.li/ ësly - ësily
easily /ˈiz.li/ ësly - ësily
fertilize /ˈfɜːr.təlaɪz/ fertlïz -
feudalism /ˈfjuːd.əlɪz.əm/ dlism -
parallel /ˈpær.ələl/ - paralel
parallel /ˈpær.əlel/ - paralel
/əm/
cinema // cinma - cinema
sacrament // sacrmnt - sacramnt
/ən/
company // compny -
contaminate // contamnät - contaminät
/ər/
accelerate // accelrät - accelerät
illiterate // ilitrat - iliterat
interest // intrest - interest
liberal /ˈlɪb.ər.əl/ librl - liberl
liberal /ˈlɪb.rəl/ librl - liberl
macaroni /mæk.əˈrəʊ.niː/ macröni - macaröni

CRΛV[edit]

If C is any consonant, R is l-r, Λ is l-m-n-r and V is a vowel, the pronunciation is ambigüus.

For example, flmingo sugests /fləˈmɪŋɡəʊ/, /fəlˈmɪŋɡəʊ/ and ëvn /fələˈmɪŋɡəʊ/.

Täbl of exampls[edit]

Shwa vowel is supressed.

Word Rësn
capitl Last sylabl
botm Last sylabl
accidnt Last sylabl
comrce Last sylabl
faclty l folöd bÿ consnant
botmless m folöd bÿ consnant
calndr n folöd bÿ consnant
aftrnoon r folöd bÿ consnant

Shwa vowel is kept.

Word Rësn
oficer ce
medicin ci
dänger ge
religin gi
anser se
brother the
baron /æ/, not /ɑː/
erand /e/, not /ɜː/
moral /ɒ/,BrE not /ɔː/BrE
maximum mVm
permnence nVn
miror rVr
balistic prevent blV
carër prevent crV
varïety prevent vrV; /ə.r/