From Teflpedia
See Initial Teaching Alphabet+ and Initial Teaching Alphabet+ (restricted character set)

See Initial Teaching Alphabet in Wikipedia.

Here we represent i.t.a. symbols using similar (or not so similar) Unicode characters. For the correct symbols see Initial_Teaching_Alphabet_ITA_chart.svg in Wikipedia.

If you see spaces or squares instead of "{{{a}}}", "{{{ee}}}", "{{{oo}}}", and "{{{z}}}" see User:Ghoti/Initial Teaching Alphabet (restricted character set).


Example using the i.t.a. alphabet

Ita example.png

Example using the Unicode adaptation invented in Teflpedia

tradiʃhonally wun ov ɟhe fiяst t{{{a}}}sks ov ɟhe infant sc{{{oo}}}l wo{{{z}}} tω t{{{ee}}}ĉh ĉhildren tω r{{{ee}}}d. it i{{{z}}} still, kwîet rîetly, a mæjoя prioccûepæʃhon, sins r{{{ee}}}diŋ i{{{z}}} a k{{{ee}}} tω muĉh ov ɟhe leяning ɟhat will cum læteя.

Note that "mæjor" should be "mæjoя" and "preoccûepæʃhon" should be "prioccûepæʃhon".


Double consonants mean exactly the same as single consonants. The same is valid for "ck", "tĉh", "dj", and "dʒ".[1]

ITA symbol IPA symbol ITA symbol IPA symbol ~ITA symbol Actual ITA symbol IPA symbol
b, bb /b/ p, pp /p/ ŋ ŋ with loop /ŋ/
c, ck /k/ r, rr /r/ я, яя r with left tail possibly silent /r/ and modifies previous vowel
d, dd /d/ s, ss /s/ {{{z}}}, {{{z}}}{{{z}}} Inverted z /z/
f, ff /f/ t, tt /t/ ĉh, tĉh Lowered C and h ligature /tʃ/
g, gg /g/ v /v/ ʃh ʃh ligature /ʃ/
h /h/ w /w/ ţh Lowered t and h ligature /θ/
j, dj, dʒ /dʒ/ y /j/ ɟh Mirror image t and h ligature /ð/
k /k/ z, zz /z/ ŵh wh ligature /ʍ/
l, ll /l/ ʒ /ʒ/
m, mm /m/
n, nn /n/


Non-rhotic vowels[edit]

ITA symbol IPA symbol ~ITA symbol Actual ITA symbol IPA symbol ~ITA symbol Actual ITA symbol IPA symbol
a /æ/ TRAP
/ə/ commA
æ æ /eɪ/ FACE {{{a}}} "Half-hook a" (big-loop a) /æ, ɑː/ BATH
e /e/ DRESS
/ə/ commA: problem
{{{ee}}} {{{ee_ligature}}} /iː/ FLEECE
/iː, ɪ/ happY
ɑ ɑ, called "round a" or "one-storey a" /ɑː/ PALM
i /ɪ/ KIT
/iː, ɪ/ happY: taxi
/ə/ commA: family
îe ie ligature /aɪ/ PRICE âu au ligature /ɔː/ THOUGHT
o /ɒ/ LOT, CLOTH
/ə/ commA: lesson
œ œ /əʊ/ GOAT ôi oi ligature /ɔɪ/ CHOICE
u /ʌ/ STRUT
/ə/ commA: album
ûe ue ligature /juː/ cute ôu ou ligature /aʊ/ MOUTH
ω /ʊ/ FOOT {{{oo}}} Omega with central loop /uː/ goose y y /ɪ/ KIT: myţh
/iː, ɪ/ happY
/ə/ commA: analysis

cute is a new lexical set, with the sequence /juː/.

goose is a new lexical set, with /uː/ not preceded by /j/.

GOOSE = goose + cute

Rhotic vowels[edit]

~ITA symbol IPA symbol ~ITA symbol IPA symbol ~ITA symbol IPA symbol
a /ə(r)/ lettER: grammaя æя /eə/ SQUARE: skwæя, scæяy {{{a}}} See ɑя
/ɜː(r)/ NURSE: teяm, rifeяяiŋ
/ə(r)/ lettER: letteя
{{{ee}}}я /ɪə(r)/ NEAR: n{{{ee}}}я, s{{{ee}}}яios ɑя /ɑː/ START: stɑяt, safɑяi, stɑяяy
/ɜː(r)/ NURSE: giяl, stiяяiŋ
/ə(r)/ lettER: confiяmæʃhon
îeя /aɪə/ fire: fîeя, fîeяiŋ âuя /ɔː/ NORTH: dîenosâuя, âuяa
/ɔː/ NORTH: noяţh, abhoяяiŋ
/ə(r)/ lettER: actoя
œя /oː(r)/ FORCE: fœяs, glœяy ôi
/ɜː(r)/ NURSE: nuяs, fuяяy
/ə(r)/ lettER: bîefuяcæt
ûeя /jʊə/ cure: cûeя, pûeяity ôuя /aʊə/ sour: sôuя
ωя /ʊə(r)/ poor: pωя, tωяist {{{oo}}} See ωя /ɜː(r)/ NURSE: myяtl
/ə(r)/ lettER: mɑяtyя

cure is a new lexical set, with the sequence /jʊə/.

poor is a new lexical set, with /ʊə/ not preceded by /j/.

CURE = poor + cure

Non-rhotic vowels followed by /r/[edit]

In these cases the vowel sounds with its normal sound, at least in Received Pronunciation. In General American there are exceptions for a, o and u (Mary-marry-merry merger, ɒr-ɔːr merger, and hurry-furry merger).

~ITA symbols IPA symbols Examples ~ITA symbols IPA symbols Examples ~ITA symbols IPA symbols Examples
ar, arr /ær,BrE AmE erAmE/ ĉharity, carry ær /eɪr/ pærœll {{{a}}}r /ɑr,BrE ær,AmE erAmE/ sen{{{a}}}riœ
er, err /er/ very, cherry {{{ee}}}r /iːr/ r{{{ee}}}rîet ɑ See ɑя
ir, irr
/iːr, ɪr/
spirit, mirror
îer /aɪr/ spîeral âu See auя
or, orr /ɒr,BrE ɔːrAmE/ sorry /ɑːrAmE/, forest, torrid œr /əʊr/ ʃhœr{{{oo}}}m ôir /ɔɪr/ jôirîed
ur, urr /ʌ,BrE ɜːAmE/ curij, hurry ûer /(j)uːr/ ôur /aʊr/ dôury
ωr /ʊr/ gωrûe {{{oo}}}r /uːr/ yr /ɪr/
/iːr, ɪr/

r vs я[edit]

In i.t.a. r is never silent, and я in Received Pronunciation is silent unless it is followed by a vowel. Below we can see all valid combinations of a vowel followed by r or я.

~ITA symbol Valid combinations ~ITA symbol Valid combinations ~ITA symbol Valid combinations
a aя (grammaя), ar/arr (carry, ĉharity) æ æя (skwæя, scæяy), ær (pærœll) {{{a}}} Possibly only sen{{{a}}}riœ; see ɑя
e eя/eяя (teяm, rifeяяiŋ, letteя), er/err (very, cherry) {{{ee}}} {{{ee}}}я (n{{{ee}}}я, s{{{ee}}}яios), {{{ee}}}r (r{{{ee}}}rîet) ɑ ɑя/ɑяя (stɑяt, safɑяi, stɑяяy)
i iя/iяя (giяl, stiяяiŋ, confiяmæʃhon), ir/irr (spirit, mirror) îe îeя (fîeя, fîeяiŋ), îer (spîeral) âu âuя (dîenosâuя, âuяa)
o oя/oяя (noяţh, abhoяяiŋ, actoя), or/orr (forest, torrid, sorry) œ œя (fœяs, glœяy), œr (shœr{{{oo}}}m) ôi ôir (jôirîed)
u uя/uяя (nuяs, fuяяy, bîefuяcæt), ur/urr (curij, hurry) ûe ûeя (cûeя, pûeяity) ôu ôuя (sôuя)
ω ωя (pωя, tωяist), ωr (gωrûe) {{{oo}}} {{{oo}}}r y yr (lyrics)

Uppercase letters[edit]

Uppercase letters are simply bigger versions of the lower case ones. However, since most letters look bold when made big (with <big>big>x</big></big>), in some cases it is preferable to use standard uppercase.

<big>big>x</big></big> Uppercase Comments
cat Cat
kit Kit
odd Odd
sun Sun
upon Upon Too different
vent Vent
win Win
yen Yen Too different
zap Zap
ʒondɑяm {{{zhondarm}}} {{{zhondarm_explanation}}}

The CLOTH lexical set[edit]

Initially i.t.a didn't have a letter for the BATH lexical set, wich is pronounced /ɑː,BrE æAmE/. Later, to be compatible with the General American accent, the "half-hook a" was invented (an "a" with a big loop, which for the lack of a Unicode character, we represent as {{{a}}}).

A similar situation happens with the CLOTH lexical set, pronounced /ɒ,BrE ɔːAmE/. The lack of special character is not problematic for several reasons:

  • Apparently there are no minimal pairs between CLOTH and LOT.
  • Words pronounced with /ɒ/ in Received Pronunciation and /ɔː/ in the United States can be divided in more than one set. Below we put some examples taken from Oxford Learner's Advanced Dictionary.
  • /ɔː/: belong, cloth, cost, cough, cross, dog, gone, moth, soft, song, strong, wrong
  • /ɔː, ɑː/: across, alcohol, along, boss, coffee, donkey, fog, log, long, loss, lost, off, offer, office, often, warranty
  • /ɑː, ɔː/: chocolate, golf, on, upon, wash
  • In the United States the Mary-marry-merry merger is very common, and in that accent LOT and CLOTH are pronounced with the same vowel, /ɑː/.

The only problem generated by the lack of CLOTH vowel is the /ɒrV-ɔːrV/ split. The i.t.a. sequence "or" as in "forest" is o+r in Received Pronunciation and o+я in General American. Therefore, the children being taught i.t.a. in American English must know an exception, wich is that "or" actually sounds "oя" (with the exception of "sorry", "sorrœ", "borrœ", and "tomorrœ", wich have a regular pronunciation).

An alternative would be to have another letter (e.g. "ø" to spell "førist"). In this case "or" could be used for "sorry". We even could use "ø" for all of the CLOTH lexical set (assuming we can agree on one).

The FORCE lexical set[edit]

i.t.a. can manage the FORCE lexical set very easily: fœяs, stœяy. However in "Winny ɟhe magpie"[2] we see the spelling "story" (with an unlikely LOT vowel), which should be "stoяy" (NORTH vowel). Similarly, in the cover of "Stoяi{{{z}}} about j{{{ee}}}zus ɟhe helpeя"[3] we see "Stoяi{{{z}}}" instead of "Stœяi{{{z}}}".

National spellings[edit]

If i.t.a. were used in just one country (as it is now, because it is used only in the United States) it could be adapted to the local pronunciation. For a global alphabet this is absurd, because i.t.a. was modified (adding {{{a}}} and я) specially to accommodate for different accents.

The following national adaptations could be done. However accents are not uniform in all of the same country, so there is some risk of alienating even a minority of the local population.

i.t.a. symbols Examples Received
Examples General
Examples Comments
{{{a}}}, ɑя {{{a}}}sk, stɑяt either ɑ or ɑя ɑsk, stɑt
ɑяsk, stɑяt
a, ɑя ask, stɑrt Not a useful simplification in the UK, because there are people with a rhotic accent, and others who pronounce "ask" as /æsk/. In Australia the accent is more uniform, but then Australian i.t.a. books would not be as useful in other countries.
ar, arr ĉharity, carry ar, arr ĉharity, carry er, err ĉherity, kerry Not a useful simplification in the US, because 42% of people make the difference between "marry" and "merry". Also, carry (or cæяяy) are preferable to kerry.
æя skwæя, scæяy æя skwæя, scæяy er skwer, skery Not a useful simplification in the US, because 34% of people make the difference between "Mary" and "merry". Also, scæяy is preferable to skery.
o, ɑ, {{{a}}}, ɑя lot, fɑther, {{{a}}}sk, stɑяt o, ɑ (or ɑя) lot, fɑɟheя, ɑsk, stɑt
lot, fɑяɟheя, ɑяsk, stɑяt
o, a, ɑя lot, foɟheя, ask, stɑяt Many Americans pronounce "father" and "bother" with different vowels.
{{{ee}}}я n{{{ee}}}я, s{{{ee}}}яios {{{ee}}}я n{{{ee}}}я, s{{{ee}}}яios ir nir, sirios Not a useful simplification in the US, because some people make the difference between "serious" and "Sirius". Also, car{{{ee}}}я or b{{{ee}}}яd are preferable to carir or bird (career, beard).
œя fœяs foяs foяs Apparently this change is already done.
ɟhe ɟhe (or ɟhi) ɟhu[4] The American change is useless, because /ə/ can be written both "e" or "u", and the transition from "ɟhu" to "the" is bigger than the one from "ɟhe" to "the".
ur, urr nuriʃh, hurry ur, urr nuriʃh, hurry uя, uяя nuяiʃh, huяяy May be a useful simplification in the US, but it makes American books less useful in the UK or Australia
ŵh ŵhen, ŵhîet w wen, wîet w wen, wîet May be a useful simplification, but "ŵh" is more similar to traditional orthography

Variant words[edit]

Some words don't follow a pattern, just like currently we have "carburettor" and "carburetor" (cɑяburettoя and carburætoя in i.t.a). The following words either have different spellings in Received Pronunciation and General American, or a compromise spelling must be selected. See also American English v. British English § Variant words.

Received Pronunciation General American Proposed common spelling
æpricot apricot N/A
b{{{ee}}}n bin b{{{ee}}}n
clɑяk cleяk N/A
et æt ate
fûetîel fûetil fûetile
ov uv ov
sanitry sanitæяy sanitary
skejûel, ʃhejûel, ʃhedûel skejûel skejûel
sorry, sorrœ, borrœ, tomorrœ sarry, sarrœ, barrœ, tomarrœ sorry, sorrœ, borrœ, tomorrœ
territry territory territory
vetrenary veterinæяy veterinary
wo{{{z}}} wu{{{z}}} wo{{{z}}}

Redundant symbols[edit]

Several symbols are redundant, and the one preferred is the most similar to traditional spelling.

Redundant symbols
Redundant symbols Examples 1 Examples 2 Examples 3
a, e, i, o, u (and nothing) as /ə/ comma, problem, family lesson, album ryɟhm, littl
aя, eя, iя, oя, uя and я as /ə(r)/ grammaя, letteя, confiяmæʃhon actoя, bîefuяcæt sentя, lîetr
c, k cat, cof, c{{{oo}}}l, cûet, socceя, mûe{{{z}}}ic karɑti, bak, lωk
eя, iя, uя teяm, eяţh giяl nuяs, wuяd
oя, âuя noяţh âuяa
{{{oo}}}, ûe l{{{oo}}}s, l{{{oo}}}{{{z}}}, ʃh{{{oo}}}, ĉh{{{oo}}}{{{z}}} blûe, Jûen, rûel, ĉhûe, ĉhûe{{{z}}}
ωя, ûeя velωя ʃhûeя
y, i happy taksi
y{{{oo}}}, ûe y{{{oo}}}, y{{{oo}}}ţh cûet, ɑяgûe, ûen{{{ee}}}k
z, {{{z}}} z{{{oo}}}, zink, fr{{{ee}}}z, dizzi dog{{{z}}}, di{{{z}}}{{{ee}}}{{{z}}}, si{{{z}}}{{{z}}}oя{{{z}}}


Traditional spelling 1 i.t.a. word 1 Traditional spelling 2 i.t.a. word 2
choose ĉh{{{oo}}}{{{z}}} chews ĉhûe{{{z}}}
chilly ĉhilly Chile ĉhili
freeze fr{{{ee}}}z frees fr{{{ee}}}{{{z}}}
their, there ɟhæя they're ɟhæ'я(*)

(*) speculation. Maybe they're is spelled ɟhæя in i.t.a.

Contextual or ambiguous symbols[edit]

Several symbols have a different meaning depending on the context

  • i
Stressed it is /ɪ/: kit
Unstressed it is /i/ or /ɪ/ (the happY vowel): taxi, mat{{{ee}}}яial
  • y
Before a vowel it is /j/: yes, biyond
Stressed it is /ɪ/: myţh
Unstressed it is /i/ or /ɪ/ (the happY vowel): copy, polynœmial

Note that "polyandrous" (t.o.) either is ambiguous (polyandros = /pɒliːˈændrəs/ or /pɒlˈjændrəs/) or it must be written "poliandros").

The following symbols have two values only in General American accent.

Vowel Normal sound VrV
a /æ/ /eə/
o /ɑː/ /ɔː/ (except sorry, sorrœ, borrow and tomorrœ, wich have /ɑː/)
u /ʌ/ /ɜː/

Number of symbols[edit]

It is usually said that i.t.a. has 45 symbols, 24 letters of the alphabet and several special symbols and ligatures:

  • 24 letters of the alphabet: a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l, m, n, o, p, r, s, t, u, v, w, y, z
  • 8 special symbols: {{{a}}}, ɑ, ω, {{{oo}}}, ŋ, я, {{{z}}}, ʒ
  • 13 ligatures: æ, {{{ee}}}, îe, œ, ûe, âu, ôi, ôu, ĉh, ʃh, ţh, ɟh, ŵh

However the symbol я ("r" with left tail) should be considered part of a digraph.

The "e" of "teяm" /ɜː/ is different from the "e" of "ĉheriʃh" /e/. This means that "eя" must be considered a digraph, and not two symbols. In the spirit of i.t.a. these digraphs should be ligatures, and the "tail" that is part of the я symbol easily blends with the previous letter.

  • 11 rhotic digraphs and trigraphs: eя, iя, oя, uя, ωя, æя, {{{ee}}}я, îeя, œя, ûeя, ôuя
  • 2 optional digraphs and trigraphs: ɑя, âuя

In the case of "ɑя" and "âuя" the vowel sound is the same as "ɑr" and "âur", and therefore it is not necessary to consider these as digraphs or ligatures.

i.t.a. IPA i.t.a. IPA i.t.a. IPA
æ, æя /eɪ, eə/ ɑ, ɑя /ɑː/
e, eя /e, ɜː/ {{{ee}}}, {{{ee}}}я /iː, ɪə/ âu, âuя /ɔː/
i, iя /ɪ, ɜː/ îe, îeя /aɪ, aɪə/
o, oя /ɒ, ɔː/ œ, œя /əʊ, ɔː/
u, uя /ʌ, ɜː/ ûe, ûeя /juː, jʊə/
ω, ωя /ʊ, ʊə/ ôu, ôuя /aʊ, aʊə/

Comma gets a cûeя[edit]

Well, h{{{ee}}}я’{{{z}}} a stœяy foя y{{{oo}}}: Sara perry wo{{{z}}} a veterinary nuяs h{{{oo}}} had b{{{ee}}}n wuяkiŋ dæly at an œld z{{{oo}}} in a di{{{z}}}eяted district ov ɟhe territory, sœ ʃhi wo{{{z}}} very happy tω stɑяt a nûe job at a sûepeяb prîevit practis in noяţh Skwæя n{{{ee}}}я ɟhe dûek Str{{{ee}}}t tôueя. ɟhat æяia wo{{{z}}} muĉh n{{{ee}}}яeя foя heя and mœя tω heя lîekiŋ. {{{ee}}}ven sœ, on heя fiяst moяniŋ, ʃhi felt stresst. ʃhi ate a bœl ov porrij, ĉheckt heяself in ɟhe mirroя and woʃht heя fæs in a hurry, ɟhen ʃhi pωt on a plæn yelœ dress and a fl{{{ee}}}s jackit, pickt up heя kit and hedid foя wuяk.

ŵhen ʃhi got ɟhæя, ɟhæя wo{{{z}}} a wωman wiɟh a g{{{oo}}}s wætiŋ foя heя. ɟhe wωman gæv Sara an offiʃhal letteя from ɟhe vet. ɟhe letteя implîed ɟhat ɟhi animal cωd bi suffeяiŋ from a ræя foяm ov fωt and môuţh di{{{z}}}{{{ee}}}{{{z}}}, ŵhiĉh wo{{{z}}} suяprîe{{{z}}}iŋ, bico{{{z}}} noяmally y{{{oo}}} wωd œnly ikspect tω s{{{ee}}} it in a dog oя a gœt. Sara wo{{{z}}} sentimental, sœ ɟhis mæd heя f{{{ee}}}l sorry foя ɟhe bûetiful biяd.

befœя loŋ, ɟhat itĉhy g{{{oo}}}s began tω strut arôund ɟhi offis lîek a lûenatic, ŵhiĉh mæd an unsanitary mess. ɟhe g{{{oo}}}s’{{{z}}} œneя, mæry harison, kept câuliŋ, “Comma, Comma”, ŵhiĉh Sara ţhâut wo{{{z}}} an odd ĉhôis foя a næm. Comma wo{{{z}}} stroŋ and hûej, sœ it wωd tæk sum fœяs tω trap heя, but Sara had a difrent îed{{{ee}}}a. fiяst ʃhi trîed jently strœkiŋ ɟhe g{{{oo}}}s’{{{z}}} lœeя back wiɟh heя pɑm, ɟhen siŋiŋ a tûen tω heя. fîenally, ʃhi administeяd {{{ee}}}ţheя. Heя effoяts weя not fûetile. In nœ tîem, ɟhe g{{{oo}}}s began tω tîeя, sœ Sara wo{{{z}}} æbl tω hœld ontω Comma and giv heя a relaksiŋ b{{{a}}}ţh.

Wuns Sara had manijd tω bæɟh ɟhe g{{{oo}}}s, ʃhi wîept heя off wiɟh a cloţh and læd heя on heя rîet sîed. ɟhen Sara confiяmd ɟhe vet’s dîeagnœsis. âulmœst imm{{{ee}}}diatly, ʃhi rimembeяd an iffectiv tr{{{ee}}}tment ɟhat rikwîeяd heя tω meʒuя ôut a lot ov medisin. Sara woяnd ɟhat ɟhis cœяs ov tr{{{ee}}}tment mîet bi ikspensiv-{{{ee}}}ɟheя fîev oя siks tîem{{{z}}} ɟhe cost ov penisilin. îe c{{{a}}}n’t imajin pæiŋ sœ muĉh, but mrs. harison-a millyonæя lâuyeя-ţhâut it wo{{{z}}} a fæя prîes foя a cûeя.

Comma gets a cûeя and dirivativ wuяks mæ bi ûe{{{z}}}d fr{{{ee}}}ly foя eny purpos wiɟhôut speʃhal peяmiʃhon provîeded ɟhe pre{{{z}}}ent sentens and ɟhe follœiŋ copirîet nœtificætion acompany ɟhe passij in print, if reprodûest in print, and in âudiœ foяmat in ɟhe cæs ov a sôund ricordiŋ: Copyright 2000 Douglas N. Honorof, Jill McCullough & Barbara Somerville. âul rîets ri{{{z}}}eяvd.

Winny ɟhe magpie[edit]

See [2].

Original version[edit]

ɟhis feɟheя will not lie doun!” cried Winny ɟhe magpie tω heя frend Sylvia, ɟhe robin. “I hav tried tω keep it flat.” just ɟhen Winny spîed a spottid cat. ɟhe cat was scratĉhing its toe-næl{{{z}}} on a garden hœ. Winny nûe ɟhis cat was heя foe. but Winny cried, “ɟhe cat can’t creep up to ɟhis soft nest ov dried twig{{{z}}}!"

fîend and copy from ɟhe story


wuяd{{{z}}} with ie or oe in ɟhem

næm and copy ɟhe pictûer{{{z}}}

hav y{{{oo}}} seen a magpie? rîet abôut it.

Regularized version[edit]

ɟhis feɟheя will not lîe doun!” crîed Winny ɟhe magpîe tω heя frend Sylvia, ɟhe robin. “îe hav trîed tω k{{{ee}}}p it flat.” just ɟhen Winny spîed a spotted cat. ɟhe cat wo{{{z}}} scratĉhing its tœ-næl{{{z}}} on a gɑяden hœ. Winny nûe ɟhis cat wo{{{z}}} heя foe. but Winny crîed, “ɟhe cat can’t cr{{{ee}}}p up to ɟhis soft nest ov drîed twig{{{z}}}!"

fîend and copy from ɟhe stœяy(*)


wuяd{{{z}}} with îe or œ in ɟhem

næm and copy ɟhe pictûeя{{{z}}}

hav y{{{oo}}} s{{{ee}}}n a magpie? rîet abôut it.

(*) i.t.a can use the FORCE lexical set with no problems.


  1. The principles of spelling in i.t.a., page dj dʒ. Posted by InitialTeachingAlphabet in Facebook. The principles of spelling in i.t.a. dj dʒ.
  2. 2.0 2.1 Winnie the magpie, Australian Science and Technology Heritage Centre, available in Gallery.
  3. The Wee Web, Ladybird ITA Books
  4. Initial Teaching Alphabet Foundation. We can see in this web site that they spell "ɟhu" instead of "ɟhe". The jigsaw puzzle at the bottom has the sentence "(sp{{{ee}}}k - bræk - fr{{{ee}}}k) nôu ɟhu puzzl fits!".

External links[edit]