Template:ITA

From Teflpedia
See Initial Teaching Alphabet (Unicode characters), Initial Teaching Alphabet (restricted character set), Initial Teaching Alphabet (images) and Initial Teaching Alphabet (Pitmanita)

See Initial Teaching Alphabet in Wikipedia.

Here we represent i.t.a. symbols using similar (or not so similar) Unicode characters. For the correct symbols see Initial_Teaching_Alphabet_ITA_chart.svg in Wikipedia, or the chart in this reference.[1] You can install the Pitmanita font and see the correct i.t.a. symbols in User:Ghoti/Initial Teaching Alphabet (Pitmanita).

Example[edit]

Example using the i.t.a. alphabet

Ita example.png

Example using the Unicode adaptation invented in Teflpedia

{{{T}}}radi{{{sh}}}onally wun ov {{{dh}}}e fi{{{r}}}st t{{{a}}}sks ov {{{dh}}}e infant sc{{{oo}}}l wo{{{s}}} t{{{uu}}} t{{{ee}}}{{{ch}}} {{{ch}}}ildren t{{{uu}}} r{{{ee}}}d. {{{I}}}t i{{{s}}} still, kw{{{ie}}}t r{{{ie}}}tly, a mæjor preocc{{{ue}}}pæ{{{sh}}}on, sins r{{{ee}}}di{{{ng}}} i{{{s}}} a k{{{ee}}} t{{{uu}}} mu{{{ch}}} ov {{{dh}}}e le{{{r}}}ning {{{dh}}}at will cum læte{{{r}}}.

Alternative versions[edit]

i.t.a. has alternative versions. For example i.t.a. Correspondence Course prefers "ks" for "x",[2] and other references prefer "cs" (possibly because the transition form "cs" to "x" will be easier). In this article we use the recommendations of i.t.a. Correspondence Course.

Consonants[edit]

Double consonants mean exactly the same as single consonants. The same is valid for "ck", "t{{{ch}}}", "dj",[3] "{{{dg}}}"[3] and "{{{r}}}r".[4]

ITA symbol IPA symbol Examples ITA symbol IPA symbol Examples ~ITA symbol Description IPA symbol Examples
b, bb /b/ back, job, rabbit p, pp /p/ problem, help, happen d, dd d with a short descender /d/ dog, end, address
c, cc, ck /k/ can, public, black, occæ{{{zh}}}on r, rr /r/ red, car, carry {{{ng}}} ŋ with loop /ŋ/ lo{{{ng}}}, lo{{{ng}}}ger, ba{{{ng}}}k
f, ff /f/ family, self, difficult s, ss /s/ still, yes, across, nekst {{{r}}}, {{{r}}}r r with left tail /r/ he{{{r}}}, bi{{{r}}}d, tu{{{r}}}n, my{{{r}}}tl, fu{{{r}}}ry
g, gg /g/ get, big, aggressiv t, tt /t/ tell, not, attack, presst {{{s}}}, {{{s}}}{{{s}}} Inverted z /z/ ha{{{s}}}, vi{{{s}}}it, si{{{s}}}{{{s}}}or{{{s}}}
h /h/ help, ahed v /v/ very, liv, level {{{ch}}}, t{{{ch}}} Lowered C and h ligature /tʃ/ {{{ch}}}eck, mu{{{ch}}}, cat{{{ch}}}, kit{{{ch}}}en
j, dj, {{{dg}}} /dʒ/ job, adjust, bri{{{dg}}} w /w/ will, aword, kwick {{{sh}}} ʃh ligature /ʃ/ {{{sh}}}op, ma{{{sh}}}{{{ee}}}n, condi{{{sh}}}on
k /k/ k{{{ee}}}p, black, chicken, nekst y /j/ yes, yell{{{oe}}} {{{th}}} Lowered t and h ligature /θ/ {{{th}}}i{{{ng}}}k, hel{{{th}}}
l, ll /l/ lot, will, gi{{{r}}}l, dollar z, zz /z/ zippe{{{r}}}, sitizen, dizzy {{{dh}}} Mirror image t and h ligature /ð/ {{{dh}}}is, bo{{{dh}}}e{{{r}}}, br{{{ee}}}{{{dh}}}
m, mm /m/ mu{{{ch}}}, problem, common {{{zh}}} /ʒ/ vi{{{zh}}}on, mass{{{aa}}}{{{zh}}} {{{wh}}} wh ligature /ʍ/ {{{wh}}}en, {{{wh}}}ispe{{{r}}}
n, nn /n/ not, man, dinne{{{r}}}

Vowels[edit]

Non-rhotic vowels[edit]

ITA symbol IPA symbol Examples ~ITA symbol Description IPA symbol Examples ~ITA symbol Description IPA symbol Examples
a /æ/ TRAP
/ə/ commA
trap
comma
æ ae ligature /eɪ/ FACE fæs, wæt {{{a}}} "Half-hook a" (big-loop a) /æ, ɑː/ BATH b{{{a}}}{{{th}}}, {{{a}}}sk
e /e/ DRESS
/ɪ/
/ə/ commA
dress
befor
problem
{{{ee}}} {{{ee_ligature}}} /iː/ FLEECE
/iː, ɪ/ happY
fl{{{ee}}}s, {{{ee}}}{{{s}}}y
coff{{{ee}}}
{{{aa}}} ɑ, called "round a" or "one-storey a" /ɑː/ PALM p{{{aa}}}m, f{{{aa}}}{{{th}}}e{{{r}}}
i /ɪ/ KIT
/iː, ɪ/ happY
/ə/ commA
kit
taxi
family
{{{ie}}} ie ligature /aɪ/ PRICE pr{{{ie}}}s, n{{{ie}}}t {{{au}}} au ligature /ɔː/ THOUGHT {{{th}}}{{{au}}}t, d{{{au}}}te{{{r}}}
o /ɒ/ LOT, CLOTH
/ə/ commA
lot, clo{{{th}}}
lesson
{{{oe}}} oe ligature /əʊ/ GOAT g{{{oe}}}t, g{{{oe}}}ld {{{oi}}} oi ligature /ɔɪ/ CHOICE {{{ch}}}{{{oi}}}s, b{{{oi}}}
u /ʌ/ STRUT
/ə/ commA
strut
album
{{{ue}}} ue ligature /juː/ cute c{{{ue}}}t, f{{{ue}}} {{{ou}}} ou ligature /aʊ/ MOUTH m{{{ou}}}{{{th}}}, {{{ou}}}l
{{{uu}}} /ʊ/ FOOT f{{{uu}}}t, p{{{uu}}}ll {{{oo}}} Omega with central loop /uː/ goose g{{{oo}}}s, s{{{oo}}}p y y /ɪ/ KIT
/iː, ɪ/ happY
/ə/ commA
my{{{th}}}
happy
analysis

cute is a new lexical set, with the sequence /juː/.

goose is a new lexical set, with /uː/ not preceded by /j/.

GOOSE = goose + cute

Rhotic vowels[edit]

In this section there are many digraphs and trigraphs which are indicated with asterisks.

~ITA symbol IPA symbol Examples ~ITA symbol IPA symbol Examples ~ITA symbol IPA symbol Examples
ar /ə(r)/ lettER grammar ær(*) /eə/ SQUARE skwær, scæry {{{a}}} See {{{aa}}}r
e{{{r}}}(*) /ɜː(r)/ NURSE
/ə(r)/ lettER
te{{{r}}}m, refe{{{r}}}ri{{{ng}}}
lette{{{r}}}
{{{ee}}}r(*) /ɪə(r)/ NEAR n{{{ee}}}r, s{{{ee}}}rious {{{aa}}}r /ɑː/ START st{{{aa}}}rt, saf{{{aa}}}ri, st{{{aa}}}rry
i{{{r}}}(*) /ɜː(r)/ NURSE
/ə(r)/ lettER
gi{{{r}}}l, sti{{{r}}}ri{{{ng}}}
confi{{{r}}}mæ{{{sh}}}on
{{{ie}}}r(**) /aɪə/ fire f{{{ie}}}r, f{{{ie}}}ri{{{ng}}} {{{au}}}r /ɔː/ NORTH d{{{ie}}}nos{{{au}}}r, {{{au}}}ra
or, orr(**) /ɔː(r)/ NORTH
/ɔː(r), oː(r)/ FORCE
/ə(r)/ lettER
nor{{{th}}}, abhorri{{{ng}}}
fors, glory
actor
{{{oe}}} See or {{{oi}}}
u{{{r}}}(*) /ɜː(r)/ NURSE
/ə(r)/ lettER
nu{{{r}}}s, fu{{{r}}}ry
b{{{ie}}}fu{{{r}}}cæt
{{{ue}}}r(*) /jʊə/ cure c{{{ue}}}r, p{{{ue}}}rity {{{ou}}}r(***) /aʊə/ sour s{{{ou}}}r
{{{uu}}}r(**) /ʊə(r)/ poor p{{{uu}}}r, t{{{uu}}}rist {{{oo}}} See {{{uu}}}r y{{{r}}}(*) /ɜː(r)/ NURSE
/ə(r)/ lettER
my{{{r}}}tl
m{{{aa}}}rty{{{r}}}

(*) Digraph or trigraph

(**)

  • Exceptionally "or" and "orr" are not digraphs/trigraphs.
  • General American and other American dialects, in these four words: sorry, sorr{{{oe}}}, borr{{{oe}}}, tomorr{{{oe}}}.
  • Received pronunciation: in words like torrid, forest, forein (including sorry, sorr{{{oe}}}, borr{{{oe}}}, tomorr{{{oe}}}). See Pronunciation exercises: /ɒrV/ vs /ɔːrV/.
  • {{{uu}}}r is a digraph only in dialects where tourist and guru have different initial vowels.
  • Exceptionally {{{ou}}}r is not a digraph in d{{{ou}}}ry (t.o. "dowry").
  • {{{ie}}}r is not a digraph in words like sp{{{ie}}}ral, v{{{ie}}}rus.

cure is a new lexical set, with the sequence /jʊə/.

poor is a new lexical set, with /ʊə/ not preceded by /j/.

CURE = poor + cure

Non-rhotic vowels followed by /r/[edit]

In these cases the vowel sounds with its normal sound, at least in Received Pronunciation. In General American there are exceptions for a, o and u (Mary-marry-merry merger, ɒr-ɔːr merger, and hurry-furry merger). These exceptions must be considered digraphs or trigraphs.

VrV
~ITA symbols IPA symbols Examples ~ITA symbols IPA symbols Examples ~ITA symbols IPA symbols Examples
ar, arr /ær,BrE AmE erAmE/ {{{ch}}}arity, carry ær /eɪr/ pær{{{oe}}}ll {{{a}}}r /ɑːr,BrE ær,AmE erAmE/ sen{{{a}}}ri{{{oe}}}
er, err /er/ very, cherry {{{ee}}}r /iːr/ r{{{ee}}}r{{{ie}}}t {{{aa}}} See {{{aa}}}r
ir, irr
ir
/ɪr/
/iːr, ɪr/
spirit, mirror
multiræ{{{sh}}}ial
{{{ie}}}r /aɪr/ sp{{{ie}}}ral {{{au}}} See {{{au}}}r
ur, urr /ʌ,BrE ɜːAmE/ curij, hurry {{{ue}}}r /(j)uːr/ {{{ue}}}r{{{ee}}}ka {{{oi}}}r /ɔɪr/ j{{{oi}}}r{{{ie}}}d
{{{uu}}}r /ʊr/ g{{{uu}}}r{{{oo}}} {{{oo}}}r /uːr/ {{{ou}}}r /aʊr/ d{{{ou}}}ry
or /ɒr,BrE ɔːrAmE/
/ɔːr/
forest, moral
glory, eksplore{{{r}}}
{{{oe}}}r /əʊr/ {{{sh}}}{{{oe}}}r{{{oo}}}m yr /ɪr/
/iːr, ɪr/
lyrics
copyr{{{ie}}}t
orr /ɒr,BrE ɔːrAmE/
/ɒr,BrE ɑːrAmE/
torrid, porri{{{dg}}}
sorry

r vs {{{r}}}[edit]

In i.t.a. in Received Pronunciation {{{r}}} and r (and {{{r}}}r and rr) are silent unless they are followed by a vowel. Below we can see all valid combinations of a vowel followed by r or {{{r}}}.

~ITA
symbol
Valid combinations ~ITA
symbol
Valid combinations ~ITA
symbol
Valid combinations
Normal sound [country] Digraph/trigraph [country, sound] Normal sound Digraph/trigraph [country] Normal sound Digraph/trigraph
a ar (grammar)
ar/arr (carry, {{{ch}}}arity) [UK]
ar/arr (carry, {{{ch}}}arity) [US, like ær] æ ær (pær{{{oe}}}ll) ær (skwær, scæry) {{{a}}} Possibly only sen{{{a}}}ri{{{oe}}}; see {{{aa}}}r
e er/err (very, {{{ch}}}erry) e{{{r}}}/e{{{r}}}r (te{{{r}}}m, refe{{{r}}}ri{{{ng}}}, lette{{{r}}}) /ɜː(r), ə(r)/ {{{ee}}} {{{ee}}}r (r{{{ee}}}r{{{ie}}}t) {{{ee}}}r (n{{{ee}}}r, s{{{ee}}}rious) {{{aa}}} {{{aa}}}r/{{{aa}}}rr (st{{{aa}}}rt, saf{{{aa}}}ri, st{{{aa}}}rry)
i ir/irr (spirit, mirror) i{{{r}}}/i{{{r}}}r (gi{{{r}}}l, sti{{{r}}}ri{{{ng}}}, confi{{{r}}}mæ{{{sh}}}on) /ɜː(r), ə(r)/ {{{ie}}} {{{ie}}}r (sp{{{ie}}}ral) {{{ie}}}r (f{{{ie}}}r, f{{{ie}}}ri{{{ng}}}) {{{au}}} {{{au}}}r (d{{{ie}}}nos{{{au}}}r, {{{au}}}ra)
o or/orr (forest, torrid, sorry) [UK, like {{{au}}}r]
orr (sorry) [US, like {{{aa}}}r]
or/orr (nor{{{th}}}, abhorri{{{ng}}}, actor, fors, glory), like {{{au}}}r
or/orr (forest, torrid) [US, like {{{au}}}r]
{{{oe}}} {{{oe}}}r (sh{{{oe}}}r{{{oo}}}m) {{{oi}}} {{{oi}}}r (j{{{oi}}}r{{{ie}}}d)
u ur/urr (curij, hurry) [UK] u{{{r}}}/u{{{r}}}r (nu{{{r}}}s, fu{{{r}}}ry, b{{{ie}}}fu{{{r}}}cæt) /ɜː(r), ə(r)/
ur/urr (curij, hurry) [US, /ɜː(r), ə(r)/]
{{{ue}}} {{{ue}}}r ({{{ue}}}r{{{ee}}}ka) {{{ue}}}r (c{{{ue}}}r, p{{{ue}}}rity) {{{ou}}} {{{ou}}}r (d{{{ou}}}ry) {{{ou}}}r (s{{{ou}}}r)
{{{uu}}} {{{uu}}}r (g{{{uu}}}r{{{oo}}}); {{{uu}}}r (p{{{uu}}}r, t{{{uu}}}rist) [US] {{{uu}}}r (p{{{uu}}}r, t{{{uu}}}rist) [UK, /ʊə/] {{{oo}}} {{{oo}}}r y yr (lyrics) y{{{r}}} (m{{{aa}}}rty{{{r}}})

Suffixes[edit]

Words ending in "-ure" in traditional orthography are spelled with "-{{{ue}}}r" in i.t.a.[5]

Words ending in "-ion" in traditional orthography drop the "i". Other suffixes keep it.[6]

ITA spelling Alternative spelling (not used in books)
pict{{{ue}}}r pic{{{ch}}}e{{{r}}}
tre{{{zh}}}{{{ue}}}r tre{{{zh}}}e{{{r}}}
spe{{{sh}}}ial spe{{{sh}}}al

Uppercase letters[edit]

Uppercase letters are simply bigger versions of the lower case ones. However, since most letters look bold when made big (with <big>big>x</big></big>), in some cases it is preferable to use standard uppercase.

<big>big>x</big></big> Uppercase Comments
cat Cat
kit Kit
odd Odd
sun Sun
upon Upon Too different
vent Vent
win Win
yen Yen Too different
zap Zap
ʒondɑяm {{{zhondarm}}} {{{zhondarm_explanation}}}

The BATH lexical set[edit]

The "half-hook a" is an "a" with a big loop and a small hook, which for the lack of a Unicode character, we represent as {{{a}}}. This letter was added to i.t.a to account for the BATH lexical set, which is pronounced /ɑː,BrE æAmE/.

{{{a}}} is used in print in words like b{{{a}}}{{{th}}} or {{{a}}}sk. Children and teachers are supposed to write b{{{aa}}}{{{th}}}, {{{aa}}}sk or ba{{{th}}}, ask according to their accent.[7]

BATH in American i.t.a.[edit]

The [American] Initial Teaching Alphabet Foundation doesn't use the i.t.a. symbol "{{{a}}}".[8] This means that their books are not useful in the UK or Australia (which doesn't matter, because i.t.a currently is used only in the United States) and also, that some American children will have problems.[9]

The CLOTH lexical set[edit]

i.t.a. added {{{a}}} to be compatible across accents.

A similar situation happens with the CLOTH lexical set, pronounced /ɒ,BrE ɔːAmE/. The lack of special character is not problematic for several reasons:

  • Apparently there are no minimal pairs between CLOTH and LOT.
  • Words pronounced with /ɒ/ in Received Pronunciation and /ɔː/ in the United States can be divided in more than one set. Below we put some examples taken from Oxford Learner's Advanced Dictionary.
  • /ɔː/: belong, cloth, cost, cough, cross, dog, froth, gone, moth, soft, song, strong, wrong
  • /ɔː, ɑː/: across, albatross, alcohol, along, boss, catalogue, coffee, donkey, floss, fog, frog, furlong, loft, log, long, loss, lost, oblong, off, offer, office, often, quarrel, toss, warranty
  • /ɑː, ɔː/: broth, chocolate, diphthong, golf, gong, on, onset, ostrich, resolve, solve, squash, upon, wash
  • /ɒ/ as an innovation in Received Pronunciation:
  • BrE, ɔːAmE/: austerity, Australia, Austria, cauliflower, because, sausage
  • /ɔː,BrE ɒBrE, ɔːAmE/: auction, hydraulic, salt
We don't want to add five new letters for these five sets.
  • In the United States the Cot-caught merger is very common, and in that accent LOT and CLOTH are pronounced with the same vowel, /ɑː/.
  • All or almost all the words in the different CLOTH sets are spelled with "o" in t.o. and also with "o" in i.t.a.

The only problem generated by the lack of CLOTH vowel is the /ɒrV-ɔːrV/ split. The i.t.a. sequence "or" as in "forest" is o+r in Received Pronunciation and {{{au}}}+r or a clipped version of {{{oe}}}+r in General American. Therefore, the children being taught i.t.a. in American English must know an exception, wich is that "or" actually sounds "{{{au}}}r" or "{{{oe}}}r " (with the exception of "sorry", "sorr{{{oe}}}", "borr{{{oe}}}", and "tomorr{{{oe}}}", wich have a regular pronunciation).

An alternative would be to have another letter (e.g. "ø" to spell "førest"). In this case "or" could be used for "sorry". We even could use "ø" for all of the CLOTH lexical set (assuming we can agree on one).

CLOTH in current American i.t.a.[edit]

The [American] Initial Teaching Alphabet Foundation uses "o" for octopus and {{{aa}}} for ostrich.[8] Since ostrich is in the CLOTH lexical set it seems the current i.t.a. Foundation decided to make their materials adapted for a subset of the American population.

The FORCE lexical set[edit]

i.t.a. can manage the FORCE lexical set very easily: "f{{{oe}}}rs", "st{{{oe}}}ry", "f{{{oe}}}r", "ov c{{{oe}}}rs". However in "Winny {{{dh}}}e magpie"[10] we see the spelling "story". Similarly, in the cover of "Stori{{{s}}} about {{{J}}}{{{ee}}}{{{s}}}us {{{dh}}}e helpe{{{r}}}"[11] we see "Stori{{{s}}} " instead of "St{{{oe}}}ri{{{s}}}". In {{{I}}}ndian t{{{oo}}} f{{{ee}}}t and his hors "of course" is spelled "ov cors" instead of "ov c{{{oe}}}rs".[12]

FORCE in current American i.t.a.[edit]

The [American] Initial Teaching Alphabet Foundation shows a student that uses "{{{oe}}}r" for the FORCE lexical set, as suggested above.[13]

National spellings[edit]

If i.t.a. were used in just one country (as it is now, because it is used only in the United States) it could be adapted to the local pronunciation. For a global alphabet this is absurd, because i.t.a. was modified (adding "{{{a}}}") specially to accommodate for different accents.

The following national adaptations could be done. However accents are not uniform in all of the same country, so there is some risk of alienating even a minority of the local population.

i.t.a. symbols Examples Country, action Examples Comments
{{{a}}}, {{{aa}}}, {{{aa}}}r {{{a}}}sk, p{{{aa}}}m, st{{{aa}}}rt UK could use either {{{aa}}} or {{{aa}}}r {{{aa}}}sk, p{{{aa}}}m, st{{{aa}}}t
{{{aa}}}rsk, p{{{aa}}}rm, st{{{aa}}}rt
Not a useful simplification because in the UK there are people with a rhotic accent, and others who pronounce "ask" as /æsk/. In Australia the accent is more uniform, but then Australian i.t.a. books would not be as useful in other countries.
a, {{{a}}} trap, {{{a}}}sk US could drop {{{a}}} (as the current ita Foundation already did) trap, ask See section BATH in American i.t.a.
ar, arr
er, err
ær
{{{ch}}}arity, carry
cherry, very
skwær, scæry
US could use er, err {{{ch}}}erity, kerry
cherry, very
skwer, skery
Not a useful simplification in the US, because 42% of people make the difference between "marry" and "merry" and 34% of people make the difference between "Mary" and "merry". Also, "carry" or "scærry" are preferable to "kerry" and "skerry"
ar, arr
er, err
ær
{{{ch}}}arity, carry
cherry, very
skwær, scæry
US could use ær, ærr {{{ch}}}ærity, cærry
chærry, væry
skwær, scæry
Not a useful simplification in the US, because 27% of people make the difference between "Mary" and "marry" and 34% of people make the difference between "Mary" and "merry".
o, {{{aa}}}, {{{aa}}}r lot, p{{{aa}}}m, st{{{aa}}}rt US could use "o" for the non-rhotic vowel lot, pom, st{{{aa}}}rt Many Americans pronounce "father" and "bother" with different vowels.
{{{ee}}}r
ir, irr
n{{{ee}}}r, s{{{ee}}}rious, spirit, mirror US could use either {{{ee}}}r, {{{ee}}}rr or ir, irr n{{{ee}}}r, s{{{ee}}}rious, sp{{{ee}}}rit, m{{{ee}}}rror
nir, sirious, spirit, mirror
Not a useful simplification in the US, because some people make the difference between "serious" and "Sirius", and since the difference is made in t.o. it helps the students to know it in advance. Also, "car{{{ee}}}r" or "b{{{ee}}}rd" are preferable to carir or bird (career, beard).
or, {{{oe}}}r nor{{{th}}}, fors In US the difference between NORTH and FORCE could be made. nor{{{th}}}, f{{{oe}}}rs The FORCE vowel was not part of the original i.t.a. Students, according to their accent, can use the digraph "{{{oe}}}r",[13] but "or" is preferred in printed texts.
ur, urr
u{{{r}}}, u{{{r}}}r
nuri{{{sh}}}, hurry
fu{{{r}}}ry
In US only u{{{r}}}, u{{{r}}}r could be used nu{{{r}}}i{{{sh}}}, hu{{{r}}}ry
fu{{{r}}}ry
May be a useful simplification in the US, but it makes American books less useful in the UK or Australia
{{{wh}}} {{{wh}}}en, {{{wh}}}{{{ie}}}t The /ʍ/ phoneme stopped being used in most of the English speaking world wen, w{{{ie}}}t May be a useful simplification, but "{{{wh}}} " is more similar to traditional orthography

Variant words[edit]

Some words don't follow a pattern, just like currently we have "carburettor" and "carburetor" (c{{{aa}}}rburettor and c{{{aa}}}rburætor in i.t.a). The following words either have different spellings in Received Pronunciation and General American, or a compromise spelling must be selected. See also American English v. British English § Variant words.

Received Pronunciation General American Observed or proposed common spelling
æpricot apricot N/A
b{{{ee}}}n bin b{{{ee}}}n
cl{{{aa}}}rk cle{{{r}}}k N/A
et æt ate
f{{{ue}}}t{{{ie}}}l f{{{ue}}}til f{{{ue}}}tile
ov uv ov
sanitry sanitæry sanitary
skwirrel skwi{{{r}}}rel skwirel
skej{{{ue}}}l, {{{sh}}}ej{{{ue}}}l, {{{sh}}}ed{{{ue}}}l skej{{{ue}}}l skej{{{ue}}}l
vetrenary veterinæry veterinary
wo{{{s}}} wu{{{s}}} wo{{{s}}}
(*)sorry, sorr{{{oe}}}, borr{{{oe}}}, tomorr{{{oe}}} s{{{aa}}}rry, s{{{aa}}}rr{{{oe}}}, b{{{aa}}}rr{{{oe}}}, tom{{{aa}}}rr{{{oe}}} sorry, sorr{{{oe}}}, borr{{{oe}}}, tomorr{{{oe}}}
(*)torrid, fo·rin/forrin torrid, forin torrid, forin
abhori{{{ng}}} abhori{{{ng}}}/abhorri{{{ng}}} abhori{{{ng}}}
territry territory territory

(*)Since in i.t.a. "or" sounds /ɔː(r)/, there is no independent to represent /ɒr/. Here we propose "orr" and "o·r". A better solution would be that "o{{{r}}}" sounds /ɔː(r)/. In that hypothetical case we would have the following table.

Received Pronunciation General American Proposed common spelling
sorry, sorr{{{oe}}}, borr{{{oe}}}, tomorr{{{oe}}} s{{{aa}}}rry/sorry, s{{{aa}}}rr{{{oe}}}/sorr{{{oe}}}, b{{{aa}}}rr{{{oe}}}/borr{{{oe}}}, tom{{{aa}}}rr{{{oe}}}/tomorr{{{oe}}} sorry, sorr{{{oe}}}, borr{{{oe}}}, tomorr{{{oe}}}
torrid, forin to{{{r}}}rid, fo{{{r}}}in torrid, forin
abho{{{r}}}ri{{{ng}}} abho{{{r}}}ri{{{ng}}} abho{{{r}}}ri{{{ng}}}
territry territo{{{r}}}y territory

Redundant symbols[edit]

Several symbols are redundant, and the one preferred is the most similar to traditional spelling.

Redundant symbols
Redundant symbols Examples
Vowels
a, e, i, o, u (and nothing) as /ə/ comma, problem, family, lesson, album, ry{{{dh}}}m, littl
Unstressed e, i as /ɪ/ befor, di{{{s}}}{{{ee}}}{{{s}}}
Two vowels as /ə/ se{{{r}}}tain, m{{{ou}}}ntain, M{{{ie}}}cael, forein, s{{{oe}}}{{{sh}}}ial, a{{{ng}}}k{{{sh}}}ous, ne{{{r}}}vous
ar, e{{{r}}}, i{{{r}}}, or, u{{{r}}}, y{{{r}}} and r as /ə(r)/ grammar, actor, lette{{{r}}}, confi{{{r}}}mæ{{{sh}}}on, b{{{ie}}}fu{{{r}}}cæt, m{{{aa}}}rty{{{r}}}, sentr, l{{{ee}}}tr
e{{{r}}}, i{{{r}}}, u{{{r}}}, y{{{r}}} te{{{r}}}m, e{{{r}}}{{{th}}}, gi{{{r}}}l, nu{{{r}}}s, wu{{{r}}}d, my{{{r}}}tl
or, {{{au}}}r nor{{{th}}}, {{{au}}}ra
{{{oo}}}, {{{ue}}} {{{sh}}}{{{oo}}}, {{{ch}}}{{{oo}}}{{{s}}}, J{{{ue}}}n, {{{ch}}}{{{ue}}}, {{{ch}}}{{{ue}}}{{{s}}}
{{{uu}}}r, {{{ue}}}r vel{{{uu}}}r, {{{sh}}}{{{ue}}}r
y, i happy, taksi
y{{{oo}}}, {{{ue}}} y{{{oo}}}, y{{{oo}}}{{{th}}}, c{{{ue}}}t, {{{aa}}}rg{{{ue}}}, {{{ue}}}n{{{ee}}}k
Consonants
c, k, ck cat, cof, c{{{oo}}}l, c{{{ue}}}t, soccr, m{{{ue}}}{{{s}}}ic, kar{{{aa}}}te, back, l{{{uu}}}k
{{{ch}}}, t{{{ch}}} {{{ch}}}{{{ie}}}ld, cat{{{ch}}}
j, dj, dʒ job, adjust, bri{{{dg}}}
z, {{{s}}} z{{{oo}}}, zi{{{ng}}}c, fr{{{ee}}}z, dizzi, dog{{{s}}}, di{{{s}}}{{{ee}}}{{{s}}}, si{{{s}}}{{{s}}}oя{{{s}}}
Double consonants: bb, cc, dd, ff, gg, ll, mm, nn, pp, rr, ss, {{{s}}}{{{s}}}, tt, zz discr{{{ie}}}bi{{{ng}}}, grabbi{{{ng}}}, n{{{ee}}}ded, middl, h{{{a}}}f, st{{{a}}}ff, t{{{ie}}}ge{{{r}}}, bigge{{{r}}}

Homophones[edit]

Homophones
Traditional spelling 1 i.t.a. word 1 Traditional spelling 2 i.t.a. word 2
choose {{{ch}}}{{{oo}}}{{{s}}} chews {{{ch}}}{{{ue}}}{{{s}}}
chilly {{{ch}}}illy Chile {{{CH}}}ile
freeze fr{{{ee}}}z frees fr{{{ee}}}{{{s}}}
their, there {{{dh}}}ær they're {{{dh}}}æ'r(*)

(*) speculation. Maybe they're is spelled {{{dh}}}ær in i.t.a.

Contextual or ambiguous symbols[edit]

Several symbols have a different meaning depending on the context

  • i
Stressed it is /ɪ/: kit
Unstressed it is /i/ or /ɪ/ (the happY vowel): taxi, mat{{{ee}}}rial
It can be /j/: opinion
  • y
Before a vowel it is /j/: yes, biyond
Stressed it is /ɪ/: my{{{th}}}
Unstressed it is /i/ or /ɪ/ (the happY vowel): copy, polyn{{{oe}}}mial

Note that "polyandrous" (t.o.) either is ambiguous (polyandros = /pɒliːˈændrəs/ or /pɒlˈjændrəs/) or it must be written "poliandros").

In the following cases V is any vowel.

  • arV, arrV
In General American "a" is /æ/ and "arr" and "ar" are /eə/, as in "carry", "charity"
  • erV, errV
In General American "e" is /e/ and "err" and "er" are /eə/, as in "cherry", "very"
  • irV, irrV
In General American "i" is /ɪ/ and "irr" and "ir" can be /ɪə/, as in "mirror", "spirit"
  • orV
Normally it is /ɔː/: glory
It can be /ɒ,BrE ɔːAmE/: forist
  • orrV
Normally it is /ɒ,BrE ɔːAmE/: corridor, torrid
It can be /ɒ,BrE ɑːAmE/ in these four words: sorry, sorr{{{oe}}}, borrow, tomorr{{{oe}}}
It is /ɔː/ in-ing forms: abhorri{{{ng}}} (this word probably was never printed in i.t.a.)
  • urV, urrV
In General American "u" is /ʌ/ and "ʌrr" and "ur" are /ɜː/, as in "hurry", "curij".

Heteronyms[edit]

Unfortunately there are heteronyms in i.t.a. because the stress is not represented.

i.t.a IPA 1 Meaning 1 IPA 2 Meaning 2
conflict /ˈkɒnflɪkt/ noun /kənˈflɪkt/ verb
invalid /ɪnˈvælɪd/ incorrect /ˈɪnvəlɪd/ disabled person
record /ˈrekɔːrd,BrE ˈrekərdAmE/ noun /rɪˈkɔːrd/ verb

Number of symbols[edit]

It is usually said that i.t.a. has 45 symbols, 24 letters of the alphabet and several special symbols and ligatures:

  • 24 letters of the alphabet: a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l, m, n, o, p, r, s, t, u, v, w, y, z
  • 8 special symbols: {{{a}}}, {{{aa}}}, {{{uu}}}, {{{oo}}}, {{{ng}}}, {{{r}}}, {{{s}}}, {{{zh}}}
  • 13 ligatures: æ, {{{ee}}}, {{{ie}}}, {{{oe}}}, {{{ue}}}, {{{au}}}, {{{oi}}}, {{{ou}}}, {{{ch}}}, {{{sh}}}, {{{th}}}, {{{dh}}}, {{{wh}}}

In addition i.t.a. has several digraphs and trigraphs

  • Several vowels followed by the symbol {{{r}}} ("r" with left tail)
  • The combinations dj, dʒ, ck, {{{r}}}r and t{{{ch}}}
  • The double letters of traditional orthography: bb, cc, dd, ff, gg, ll, mm, nn, pp, rr, ss, {{{s}}}{{{s}}}, tt, zz
  • Double letters used very seldom in traditional orthography: kk, vv

The "e" of "teяm" /ɜː/ is different from the "e" of "{{{ch}}}eri{{{sh}}}" /e/. This means that "e{{{r}}}" must be considered a digraph, and not two symbols. The same is valid for i{{{r}}} and u{{{r}}}. In the spirit of i.t.a. these digraphs could have been ligatures, and the "tail" that is part of the {{{r}}} symbol easily blends with the previous letter. However, since {{{r}}} was added later to i.t.a., probably it was thought it would be easier to ad one symbol instead of three ligatures.

Similarly the "o" of "north" /ɔː/ is different from the "o" of lot /ɒ,BrE ɑːAmE/, and the "o" of forest /ɒ,BrE ɔːAmE/. Therefore "or" should be considered a digraph. Since "or" is a digraph, we need to explicitly say that in Received Pronunciation "orr" is normally /ɒr/, as in "torrid". This means that "orr" is a trigraph.

  • 12 rhotic digraphs and trigraphs: e{{{r}}}, i{{{r}}}, or, orr, u{{{r}}}, {{{uu}}}r, y{{{r}}}, ær, {{{ee}}}r, {{{ie}}}r, {{{ue}}}r, {{{ou}}}r

In the case of "{{{aa}}}r" and "{{{au}}}r" (start, dinos{{{au}}}r) the vowel sound is the same as "{{{aa}}}" and "{{{au}}}" (f{{{aa}}}{{{dh}}}e{{{r}}}, d{{{au}}}te{{{r}}}), and therefore it is not necessary to consider these as digraphs.

Additionally, children may use "{{{oe}}}r" when i.t.a. prefers "or".[13]

i.t.a. IPA i.t.a. IPA i.t.a. IPA
æ, æ{{{r}}} /eɪ, eə/ {{{aa}}}, {{{aa}}}r /ɑː/
e, e{{{r}}} /e, ɜː/ {{{ee}}}, {{{ee}}}r /iː, ɪə/ {{{au}}}, {{{au}}}r /ɔː/
i, i{{{r}}} /ɪ, ɜː/ {{{ie}}}, {{{ie}}}r /aɪ, aɪə/
o, or, orr /ɒ, ɔː, ɒ/ {{{oe}}}, {{{oe}}}r[13] /oʊ,AmEAmE/
u, u{{{r}}} /ʌ, ɜː/ {{{ue}}}, {{{ue}}}r /juː, jʊə/
{{{uu}}}, {{{uu}}}r /ʊ, ʊə/ {{{ou}}}, {{{ou}}}r /aʊ, aʊə/

Conclusion[edit]

i.t.a. has 61 symbols, digraphs and trigraphs

  • 24 letters of the alphabet
  • 8 special symbols
  • 13 ligatures
  • 12 rhotic digraphs and trigraphs
  • 5 consonantal digraphs and trigraphs

The total is 76 if we add the double letters (78 with "kk" and "vv"). And we didn't count, {{{oe}}}r, the optional digraph for children.

Number of sounds[edit]

Sometimes it is said that i.t.a has 44 symbols for 44 sounds. This count excludes the half-hook a ({{{a}}}).

The following sections show the sounds supported by i.t.a.

Consonants[edit]

Consonants
Sound i.t.a Sound i.t.a. Sound i.t.a
/b/ b /l/ l /t/ t
/d/ d /m/ m /tʃ/ {{{ch}}}
/ðʒ/ {{{dh}}} /n/ n /θ/ {{{th}}}
/d/ d /ŋ/ {{{ng}}} /v/ v
/f/ f /p/ p /w/ w, {{{wh}}}
/g/ g /r/ r, {{{r}}}r /ʍ/* {{{wh}}}
/h/ h /s/ s /z/ z, {{{s}}}
/j/ y /ʃ/ {{{sh}}} /ʒ/ {{{zh}}}
/k/ c, ck, k

(*) /ʍ/ is normally merged with /w/

i.t.a. supports 25 consonants, but /ʍ/ is not present in most English dialects.

Vowels in Received Pronunciation[edit]

Vowels in Received Pronunciation
Sound i.t.a Sound i.t.a Sound i.t.a
/ɑː, ɑːr, ər/ {{{aa}}}, {{{aa}}}r, {{{a}}} /ɪ, ə, ər/ i, i{{{r}}} /ʊ/ {{{uu}}}
/æ, ə, ər/ a, ar /iː/ {{{ee}}} /uː/ {{{oo}}}
/aɪ, aɪə/ {{{ie}}}, {{{ie}}}r, {{{ie}}}e{{{r}}} /ɪə/ {{{ee}}}r /ʊə/ {{{uu}}}r
/aʊ, aʊə/ {{{ou}}}, {{{ou}}}r, {{{ou}}}e{{{r}}} /ɒ, ə/ o /juː/ {{{ue}}}
/e, ɪ, ə, ər/ e, e{{{r}}} /ɔːr, ər/
/ɔː, ɔːr/
or
{{{au}}}, {{{au}}}r
/jʊə/ {{{ue}}}r
/eə/ ær /ɔɪ/ {{{oi}}} /ʌ, ə, ər/ u, u{{{r}}}
/eɪ/ æ /əʊ/ {{{oe}}} /ɜː/ e{{{r}}}, i{{{r}}}, u{{{r}}}

The total number is 21, but we must subtract /juː/ and /jʊə/, because /j/ is a separate symbol, already counted as a consonant.

Vowels in General American[edit]

Vowels in General American
Sound i.t.a Sound i.t.a Sound i.t.a
/ɑː, ɑːr, ər/
/ɑː, ə, ər/
{{{aa}}}, {{{aa}}}r
o, or
/ɪ, ə, ər/ [ɪə] i, i{{{r}}}, {{{ee}}}r /(j)ʊr/ {{{ue}}}r
/æ, ə, ər/ a, ar, {{{a}}} /iː/ {{{ee}}} /uː/ {{{oo}}}
/aɪ, aɪə/ {{{ie}}}, {{{ie}}}r, {{{ie}}}e{{{r}}} /ɔːr, ər/
/ɔː, ɔːr/
or
{{{au}}}, {{{au}}}r
/(j)uː/ {{{ue}}}
/aʊ, aʊə/ {{{ou}}}, {{{ou}}}r, {{{ou}}}e{{{r}}} /ɔɪ/ {{{oi}}} /ʌ, ə, ər/ u, u{{{r}}}
/e, ɪ, ə, ər/ [eə] e, e{{{r}}}, ær /əʊ/ {{{oe}}} /ɜː/ e{{{r}}}, i{{{r}}}, u{{{r}}}
/eɪ/ æ /ʊ, ʊr/ [ʊər] {{{uu}}}, {{{uu}}}r

The total number is 19, but we must subtract /(j)uː/ and /(j)ʊr/, because /j/ is a separate symbol, already counted as a consonant.

Conclusion[edit]

i.t.a. supports 25 consonants, 21 British vowels and {{{a}}}, a vowel for compatibility. In total i.t.a. supports 47 sounds, and it does not have a special symbol for /ə/.

Comma gets a c{{{ue}}}r[edit]

Standard i.t.a. spelling[edit]

Well, h{{{ee}}}r’{{{s}}} a story for y{{{oo}}}: Sara {{{P}}}erry wo{{{s}}} a veterinary nu{{{r}}}s h{{{oo}}} had b{{{ee}}}n wu{{{r}}}ki{{{ng}}} dæly at an {{{oe}}}ld z{{{oo}}} in a de{{{s}}}e{{{r}}}ted district ov {{{dh}}}e territory, s{{{oe}}} {{{sh}}}{{{ee}}} wo{{{s}}} very happy t{{{uu}}} st{{{aa}}}rt a n{{{ue}}} job at a s{{{ue}}}pe{{{r}}}b pr{{{ie}}}vit practis in {{{N}}}or{{{th}}} Skwær n{{{ee}}}r {{{dh}}}e {{{D}}}{{{ue}}}k Str{{{ee}}}t {{{T}}}{{{ou}}}e{{{r}}}. {{{DH}}}at æria wo{{{s}}} mu{{{ch}}} n{{{ee}}}re{{{r}}} for he{{{r}}} and mor t{{{uu}}} he{{{r}}} l{{{ie}}}ki{{{ng}}}. {{{EE}}}ven s{{{oe}}}, on he{{{r}}} fi{{{r}}}st morni{{{ng}}}, {{{sh}}}{{{ee}}} felt stresst. {{{SH}}}{{{ee}}} ate a b{{{oe}}}l ov porri{{{dg}}}, {{{ch}}}eckt he{{{r}}}self in {{{dh}}}e mirror and wo{{{sh}}}t he{{{r}}} fæs in a hurry. {{{DH}}}en {{{sh}}}{{{ee}}} p{{{uu}}}t on a plæn yel{{{oe}}} dress and a fl{{{ee}}}s jacket, pickt up he{{{r}}} kit and heded for wu{{{r}}}k.

{{{WH}}}en {{{sh}}}{{{ee}}} got {{{dh}}}ær, {{{dh}}}ær wo{{{s}}} a w{{{uu}}}man wi{{{dh}}} a g{{{oo}}}s wæti{{{ng}}} for he{{{r}}}. {{{DH}}}e w{{{uu}}}man gæv Sara an offi{{{sh}}}ial lette{{{r}}} from {{{dh}}}e vet. {{{DH}}}e lette{{{r}}} impl{{{ie}}}d {{{dh}}}at {{{dh}}}i animal c{{{uu}}}d bi suffe{{{r}}}i{{{ng}}} from a rær form ov f{{{uu}}}t and m{{{ou}}}{{{th}}} di{{{s}}}{{{ee}}}{{{s}}}, {{{wh}}}i{{{ch}}} wo{{{s}}} su{{{r}}}pr{{{ie}}}{{{s}}}i{{{ng}}}, beco{{{s}}} normally y{{{oo}}} w{{{uu}}}d {{{oe}}}nly ekspect t{{{uu}}} s{{{ee}}} it in a dog or a g{{{oe}}}t. Sara wo{{{s}}} sentimental, s{{{oe}}} {{{dh}}}is mæd he{{{r}}} f{{{ee}}}l sorry for {{{dh}}}e b{{{ue}}}tiful bi{{{r}}}d.

{{{B}}}efor lo{{{ng}}}, {{{dh}}}at it{{{ch}}}y g{{{oo}}}s began t{{{uu}}} strut ar{{{ou}}}nd {{{dh}}}i offis l{{{ie}}}k a l{{{oo}}}natic, {{{wh}}}i{{{ch}}} mæd an unsanitary mess. {{{DH}}}e g{{{oo}}}s’{{{s}}} {{{oe}}}ne{{{r}}}, {{{M}}}æry {{{H}}}arrison, kept c{{{au}}}li{{{ng}}}, “Comma, Comma”, {{{wh}}}i{{{ch}}} Sara {{{th}}}{{{au}}}t wo{{{s}}} an odd {{{ch}}}{{{oi}}}s for a næm. Comma wo{{{s}}} stro{{{ng}}} and h{{{ue}}}j, s{{{oe}}} it w{{{uu}}}d tæk sum fors t{{{uu}}} trap he{{{r}}}, but Sara had a different {{{ie}}}d{{{ee}}}a. {{{F}}}i{{{r}}}st {{{sh}}}{{{ee}}} tr{{{ie}}}d jently str{{{oe}}}ki{{{ng}}} {{{dh}}}e g{{{oo}}}s’{{{s}}} l{{{oe}}}e{{{r}}} back wi{{{dh}}} he{{{r}}} p{{{aa}}}m, {{{dh}}}en si{{{ng}}}i{{{ng}}} a t{{{ue}}}n t{{{uu}}} he{{{r}}}. {{{F}}}{{{ie}}}nally, {{{sh}}}{{{ee}}} administe{{{r}}}d {{{ee}}}{{{th}}}e{{{r}}}. He{{{r}}} efforts we{{{r}}} not f{{{ue}}}tile. In n{{{oe}}} t{{{ie}}}m, {{{dh}}}e g{{{oo}}}s began t{{{uu}}} t{{{ie}}}r, s{{{oe}}} Sara wo{{{s}}} æbl t{{{uu}}} h{{{oe}}}ld ont{{{uu}}} Comma and giv he{{{r}}} a relaksi{{{ng}}} b{{{a}}}{{{th}}}.

Wuns Sara had manijd t{{{uu}}} bæ{{{dh}}} {{{dh}}}e g{{{oo}}}s, {{{sh}}}{{{ee}}} w{{{ie}}}pt he{{{r}}} off wi{{{dh}}} a clo{{{th}}} and læd he{{{r}}} on he{{{r}}} r{{{ie}}}t s{{{ie}}}d. {{{DH}}}en Sara confi{{{r}}}md {{{dh}}}e vet’s d{{{ie}}}agn{{{oe}}}sis. {{{AU}}}lm{{{oe}}}st imm{{{ee}}}diatly, {{{sh}}}{{{ee}}} remembe{{{r}}}d an effectiv tr{{{ee}}}tment {{{dh}}}at rekw{{{ie}}}rd he{{{r}}} t{{{uu}}} me{{{zh}}}u{{{r}}} {{{ou}}}t a lot ov medisin. Sara wornd {{{dh}}}at {{{dh}}}is cors ov tr{{{ee}}}tment m{{{ie}}}t bi ekspensiv-{{{ee}}}{{{dh}}}e{{{r}}} f{{{ie}}}v or siks t{{{ie}}}m{{{s}}} {{{dh}}}e cost ov penisilin. {{{IE}}} c{{{a}}}n’t imajin pæi{{{ng}}} s{{{oe}}} mu{{{ch}}}, but {{{M}}}rs. {{{H}}}arrison-a millyonær l{{{au}}}ye{{{r}}}-{{{th}}}{{{au}}}t it wo{{{s}}} a fær pr{{{ie}}}s for a c{{{ue}}}r.

Comma gets a c{{{ue}}}r and derivativ wu{{{r}}}ks mæ bi {{{ue}}}{{{s}}}d fr{{{ee}}}ly for eny pu{{{r}}}pos wi{{{dh}}}{{{ou}}}t spe{{{sh}}}ial pe{{{r}}}mi{{{sh}}}ion prov{{{ie}}}ded {{{dh}}}e pre{{{s}}}ent sentens and {{{dh}}}e foll{{{oe}}}i{{{ng}}} copir{{{ie}}}t n{{{oe}}}tificæ{{{sh}}}on accumpany {{{dh}}}e passij in print, if r{{{ee}}}prod{{{ue}}}st in print, and in {{{au}}}di{{{oe}}} format in {{{dh}}}e cæs ov a s{{{ou}}}nd recordi{{{ng}}}: Copyright 2000 Douglas N. Honorof, Jill McCullough & Barbara Somerville. {{{{AU}}}l r{{{ie}}}ts re{{{s}}}e{{{r}}}vd.

i.t.a. with a Received Pronunciation accent[edit]

In i.t.a. children can spell according to their accent. Here we show a text the way it could look if produced by a child who speaks with a Received Pronunciation accent (or, equivalently, with Estuary English accent).

Wel, h{{{ee}}}r’z a st{{{au}}}ry f{{{au}}}r {{{ue}}}: Sare{{{r}}} {{{P}}}ery woz a vetrinery nu{{{r}}}s h{{{oo}}} had b{{{ee}}}n wu{{{r}}}ki{{{ng}}} dæly at an {{{oe}}}ld z{{{oo}}} in a dizu{{{r}}}tid distrikt ov {{{dh}}}e teretry, s{{{oe}}} {{{sh}}}{{{ee}}} woz very hapy t{{{uu}}} st{{{aa}}}t a n{{{ue}}} job at a s{{{ue}}}pu{{{r}}}b pr{{{ie}}}vit praktis in {{{N}}}{{{au}}}{{{th}}} Skwær n{{{ee}}}r {{{dh}}}e {{{D}}}{{{ue}}}k Str{{{ee}}}t {{{T}}}{{{ou}}}e{{{r}}}. {{{DH}}}at ær{{{ee}}}e{{{r}}} woz mu{{{ch}}} n{{{ee}}}re{{{r}}} f{{{au}}}r hu{{{r}}} and m{{{au}}}r t{{{uu}}} hu{{{r}}} l{{{ie}}}ki{{{ng}}}. {{{EE}}}ven s{{{oe}}}, on hu{{{r}}} fu{{{r}}}st m{{{au}}}ni{{{ng}}}, {{{sh}}}{{{ee}}} felt stresst. {{{SH}}}{{{ee}}} et a b{{{oe}}}l ov porij, {{{ch}}}eckt hu{{{r}}}self in {{{dh}}}e mire{{{r}}} and wo{{{sh}}}t hu{{{r}}} fæs in a hury. {{{DH}}}en {{{sh}}}{{{ee}}} p{{{uu}}}t on a plæn yel{{{oe}}} dres and a fl{{{ee}}}s jakit, pikt up hu{{{r}}} kit and hedid f{{{au}}}r wu{{{r}}}k.

Wen {{{sh}}}{{{ee}}} got {{{dh}}}ær, {{{dh}}}ær woz a w{{{uu}}}men wi{{{dh}}} a g{{{oo}}}s wæti{{{ng}}} f{{{au}}}r hu{{{r}}}. {{{DH}}}e w{{{uu}}}men gæv Sare{{{r}}} an efi{{{sh}}}el lete{{{r}}} from {{{dh}}}e vet. {{{DH}}}e lete{{{r}}} impl{{{ie}}}d {{{dh}}}at {{{dh}}}i animel c{{{uu}}}d bi sufe{{{r}}}i{{{ng}}} from a rær f{{{au}}}m ov f{{{uu}}}t and m{{{ou}}}{{{th}}} diz{{{ee}}}z, wi{{{ch}}} woz se{{{r}}}pr{{{ie}}}zi{{{ng}}}, bicoz n{{{au}}}mely {{{ue}}} w{{{uu}}}d {{{oe}}}nly ikspekt t{{{uu}}} s{{{ee}}} it in a dog or a g{{{oe}}}t. Sare{{{r}}} woz sentimentel, s{{{oe}}} {{{dh}}}is mæd hu{{{r}}} f{{{ee}}}l sory f{{{au}}}r {{{dh}}}e b{{{ue}}}tifel bu{{{r}}}d.

{{{B}}}ef{{{au}}}r lo{{{ng}}}, {{{dh}}}at it{{{ch}}}y g{{{oo}}}s bigan t{{{uu}}} strut ar{{{ou}}}nd {{{dh}}}i ofis l{{{ie}}}k a l{{{oo}}}netik, wi{{{ch}}} mæd an unsanetry mes. {{{DH}}}e g{{{oo}}}s’z {{{oe}}}ne{{{r}}}, {{{M}}}æry {{{H}}}arisen, kept c{{{au}}}li{{{ng}}}, “Come{{{r}}}, Come{{{r}}}”, wi{{{ch}}} Sare{{{r}}} {{{th}}}{{{au}}}t woz an od {{{ch}}}{{{oi}}}s f{{{au}}}r a næm. Come{{{r}}} woz stro{{{ng}}} and h{{{ue}}}j, s{{{oe}}} it w{{{uu}}}d tæk sum f{{{au}}}s t{{{uu}}} trap hu{{{r}}}, but Sare{{{r}}} had a difrent {{{ie}}}d{{{ee}}}e{{{r}}}. {{{F}}}u{{{r}}}st {{{sh}}}{{{ee}}} tr{{{ie}}}d jentely str{{{oe}}}ki{{{ng}}} {{{dh}}}e g{{{oo}}}s’z l{{{oe}}}e{{{r}}} bak wi{{{dh}}} hu{{{r}}} p{{{aa}}}m, {{{dh}}}en si{{{ng}}}i{{{ng}}} a t{{{ue}}}n t{{{uu}}} hu{{{r}}}. {{{F}}}{{{ie}}}nely, {{{sh}}}{{{ee}}} edministe{{{r}}}d {{{ee}}}{{{th}}}e{{{r}}}. Hu{{{r}}} efets wu{{{r}}} not f{{{ue}}}t{{{ie}}}l. In n{{{oe}}} t{{{ie}}}m, {{{dh}}}e g{{{oo}}}s bigan t{{{uu}}} t{{{ie}}}r, s{{{oe}}} Sare{{{r}}} woz æbel t{{{uu}}} h{{{oe}}}ld ont{{{uu}}} Come{{{r}}} and giv hu{{{r}}} a rilaksi{{{ng}}} b{{{aa}}}{{{th}}}.

Wuns Sare{{{r}}} had manijd t{{{uu}}} bæ{{{dh}}} {{{dh}}}e g{{{oo}}}s, {{{sh}}}{{{ee}}} w{{{ie}}}pt hu{{{r}}} of wi{{{dh}}} a clo{{{th}}} and læd hu{{{r}}} on hu{{{r}}} r{{{ie}}}t s{{{ie}}}d. {{{DH}}}en Sare{{{r}}} confu{{{r}}}md {{{dh}}}e vet’s d{{{ie}}}agn{{{oe}}}sis. {{{AU}}}lm{{{oe}}}st im{{{ee}}}d{{{ee}}}etly, {{{sh}}}{{{ee}}} rimembe{{{r}}}d an ifectiv tr{{{ee}}}tment {{{dh}}}at rikw{{{ie}}}rd hu{{{r}}} t{{{uu}}} me{{{zh}}}u{{{r}}} {{{ou}}}t a lot ov medsen. Sare{{{r}}} wornd {{{dh}}}at {{{dh}}}is c{{{au}}}s ov tr{{{ee}}}tment m{{{ie}}}t bi ikspensiv-{{{ee}}}{{{dh}}}e{{{r}}} f{{{ie}}}v or siks t{{{ie}}}mz {{{dh}}}e cost ov penisilin. {{{IE}}} c{{{aa}}}n’t imajin pæi{{{ng}}} s{{{oe}}} mu{{{ch}}}, but {{{M}}}rs. {{{H}}}arisen-a mil{{{ue}}}nær l{{{au}}}ye{{{r}}}-{{{th}}}{{{au}}}t it woz a fær pr{{{ie}}}s f{{{au}}}r a c{{{ue}}}r.

Come{{{r}}} gets a c{{{ue}}}r and dirivativ wu{{{r}}}ks mæ bi {{{ue}}}zd fr{{{ee}}}ly f{{{au}}}r eny pu{{{r}}}pes wi{{{dh}}}{{{ou}}}t spe{{{sh}}}el pe{{{r}}}mi{{{sh}}}en prev{{{ie}}}did {{{dh}}}e prezent sentens and {{{dh}}}e fol{{{oe}}}i{{{ng}}} copir{{{ie}}}t n{{{oe}}}tificæ{{{sh}}}en ecumpeny {{{dh}}}e pasij in print, if r{{{ee}}}pred{{{ue}}}st in print, and in {{{au}}}d{{{ee}}}{{{oe}}} f{{{au}}}mat in {{{dh}}}e cæs ov a s{{{ou}}}nd ric{{{au}}}di{{{ng}}}: Copyright 2000 Douglas N. Honorof, Jill McCullough & Barbara Somerville. {{{AU}}}l r{{{ie}}}ts rizu{{{r}}}vd.

i.t.a. with a General American accent[edit]

Here we show a text the way it could look if produced by a child who speaks with a General American accent.

Wel, h{{{ee}}}r’z a story for {{{ue}}}: Sara {{{P}}}æry wuz a veterenæry nu{{{r}}}s h{{{oo}}} had bin wu{{{r}}}ki{{{ng}}} dæly at an {{{oe}}}ld z{{{oo}}} in a dizu{{{r}}}tid distrikt uv {{{dh}}}e tæretory, s{{{oe}}} {{{sh}}}{{{ee}}} wuz væry hapy t{{{uu}}} st{{{aa}}}rt a n{{{ue}}} job at a s{{{ue}}}pu{{{r}}}b pr{{{ie}}}vit praktis in {{{N}}}or{{{th}}} Skwær n{{{ee}}}r {{{dh}}}e {{{D}}}{{{ue}}}k Str{{{ee}}}t {{{T}}}{{{ou}}}e{{{r}}}. {{{DH}}}at ær{{{ee}}}a wuz mu{{{ch}}} n{{{ee}}}re{{{r}}} for hu{{{r}}} and mor t{{{uu}}} hu{{{r}}} l{{{ie}}}ki{{{ng}}}. {{{EE}}}ven s{{{oe}}}, on hu{{{r}}} fu{{{r}}}st morni{{{ng}}}, {{{sh}}}{{{ee}}} felt stresst. {{{SH}}}{{{ee}}} æt a b{{{oe}}}l uv porij, {{{ch}}}eckt hu{{{r}}}self in {{{dh}}}e m{{{ee}}}re{{{r}}} and wo{{{sh}}}t hu{{{r}}} fæs in a hu{{{r}}}y. {{{DH}}}en {{{sh}}}{{{ee}}} p{{{uu}}}t on a plæn yel{{{oe}}} dres and a fl{{{ee}}}s jakit, pikt up hu{{{r}}} kit and hedid for wu{{{r}}}k.

Wen {{{sh}}}{{{ee}}} got {{{dh}}}ær, {{{dh}}}ær wuz a w{{{uu}}}men wi{{{dh}}} a g{{{oo}}}s wæti{{{ng}}} for hu{{{r}}}. {{{DH}}}e w{{{uu}}}men gæv Sara an efi{{{sh}}}el lete{{{r}}} frum {{{dh}}}e vet. {{{DH}}}e lete{{{r}}} impl{{{ie}}}d {{{dh}}}at {{{dh}}}i animel c{{{uu}}}d bi sufe{{{r}}}i{{{ng}}} frum a rær form uv f{{{uu}}}t and m{{{ou}}}{{{th}}} diz{{{ee}}}z, wi{{{ch}}} wuz se{{{r}}}pr{{{ie}}}zi{{{ng}}}, bic{{{au}}}z normely {{{ue}}} w{{{uu}}}d {{{oe}}}nly ikspekt t{{{uu}}} s{{{ee}}} it in a d{{{au}}}g or a g{{{oe}}}t. Sara wuz sentimentel, s{{{oe}}} {{{dh}}}is mæd hu{{{r}}} f{{{ee}}}l s{{{aa}}}ry for {{{dh}}}e b{{{ue}}}tifel bu{{{r}}}d.

{{{B}}}efor lo{{{ng}}}, {{{dh}}}at it{{{ch}}}y g{{{oo}}}s bigan t{{{uu}}} strut ar{{{ou}}}nd {{{dh}}}i {{{au}}}fis l{{{ie}}}k a l{{{oo}}}netik, wi{{{ch}}} mæd an unsanetæry mes. {{{DH}}}e g{{{oo}}}s’z {{{oe}}}ne{{{r}}}, {{{M}}}æry {{{H}}}arisen, kept c{{{au}}}li{{{ng}}}, “Coma, Coma”, wi{{{ch}}} Sara {{{th}}}{{{au}}}t wuz an od {{{ch}}}{{{oi}}}s for a næm. Coma wuz str{{{au}}}{{{ng}}} and h{{{ue}}}j, s{{{oe}}} it w{{{uu}}}d tæk sum fors t{{{uu}}} trap hu{{{r}}}, but Sara had a difrent {{{ie}}}d{{{ee}}}a. {{{F}}}u{{{r}}}st {{{sh}}}{{{ee}}} tr{{{ie}}}d jentely str{{{oe}}}ki{{{ng}}} {{{dh}}}e g{{{oo}}}s’z l{{{oe}}}e{{{r}}} bak wi{{{dh}}} hu{{{r}}} pom, {{{dh}}}en si{{{ng}}}i{{{ng}}} a t{{{ue}}}n t{{{uu}}} hu{{{r}}}. {{{F}}}{{{ie}}}nely, {{{sh}}}{{{ee}}} edministe{{{r}}}d {{{ee}}}{{{th}}}e{{{r}}}. Hu{{{r}}} efe{{{r}}}ts wu{{{r}}} not f{{{ue}}}tel. In n{{{oe}}} t{{{ie}}}m, {{{dh}}}e g{{{oo}}}s bigan t{{{uu}}} t{{{ie}}}r, s{{{oe}}} Sara wuz æbel t{{{uu}}} h{{{oe}}}ld ont{{{uu}}} Coma and giv hu{{{r}}} a rilaksi{{{ng}}} ba{{{th}}}.

Wuns Sara had manijd t{{{uu}}} bæ{{{dh}}} {{{dh}}}e g{{{oo}}}s, {{{sh}}}{{{ee}}} w{{{ie}}}pt hu{{{r}}} {{{au}}}f wi{{{dh}}} a cl{{{au}}}{{{th}}} and læd hu{{{r}}} on hu{{{r}}} r{{{ie}}}t s{{{ie}}}d. {{{DH}}}en Sara confu{{{r}}}md {{{dh}}}e vet’s d{{{ie}}}agn{{{oe}}}sis. {{{AU}}}lm{{{oe}}}st im{{{ee}}}d{{{ee}}}etly, {{{sh}}}{{{ee}}} rimembe{{{r}}}d an ifectiv tr{{{ee}}}tment {{{dh}}}at rikw{{{ie}}}rd hu{{{r}}} t{{{uu}}} me{{{zh}}}u{{{r}}} {{{ou}}}t a lot uv medesen. Sara wornd {{{dh}}}at {{{dh}}}is cors uv tr{{{ee}}}tment m{{{ie}}}t bi ikspensiv-{{{ee}}}{{{dh}}}e{{{r}}} f{{{ie}}}v or siks t{{{ie}}}mz {{{dh}}}e c{{{au}}}st uv penisilin. {{{IE}}} can’t imajin pæi{{{ng}}} s{{{oe}}} mu{{{ch}}}, but {{{M}}}rs. {{{H}}}arisen-a mil{{{ue}}}nær l{{{au}}}ye{{{r}}}-{{{th}}}{{{au}}}t it wuz a fær pr{{{ie}}}s for a c{{{ue}}}r.

Coma gets a c{{{ue}}}r and dirivativ wu{{{r}}}ks mæ bi {{{ue}}}zd fr{{{ee}}}ly for eny pu{{{r}}}pes wi{{{dh}}}{{{ou}}}t spe{{{sh}}}el pe{{{r}}}mi{{{sh}}}en prev{{{ie}}}did {{{dh}}}e prezent sentens and {{{dh}}}e fol{{{oe}}}i{{{ng}}} cop{{{ee}}}r{{{ie}}}t n{{{oe}}}tificæ{{{sh}}}en ecumpeny {{{dh}}}e pasij in print, if r{{{ee}}}pred{{{ue}}}st in print, and in {{{au}}}d{{{ee}}}{{{oe}}} format in {{{dh}}}e cæs uv a s{{{ou}}}nd ricordi{{{ng}}}: Copyright 2000 Douglas N. Honorof, Jill McCullough & Barbara Somerville. {{{AU}}}l r{{{ie}}}ts rizu{{{r}}}vd.

Winny {{{dh}}}e magpie[edit]

See [10].

Original version[edit]

“{{{DH}}}is fe{{{dh}}}e{{{r}}} will not lie doun!” cried Winny {{{dh}}}e magpie t{{{uu}}} he{{{r}}} frend Sylvia, {{{dh}}}e robin. “I hav tried t{{{uu}}} keep it flat.” just {{{dh}}}en Winny sp{{{ie}}}d a spottid cat. {{{DH}}}e cat was scrat{{{ch}}}ing its toe-næl{{{s}}} on a garden h{{{oe}}}. Winny n{{{ue}}} {{{dh}}}is cat was he{{{r}}} foe. {{{B}}}ut Winny cried, “{{{dh}}}e cat c{{{a}}}n’t creep up to {{{dh}}}is soft nest ov dried twig{{{s}}}!"

{{{F}}}{{{ie}}}nd and copy from {{{dh}}}e story

was

wu{{{r}}}d{{{s}}} with ie or oe in {{{dh}}}em

{{{N}}}æm and copy {{{dh}}}e pict{{{ue}}}r{{{s}}}

{{{H}}}av y{{{oo}}} seen a magpie? {{{R}}}{{{ie}}}t ab{{{ou}}}t it.

Regularized version[edit]

“{{{DH}}}is fe{{{dh}}}e{{{r}}} will not l{{{ie}}} doun!” cr{{{ie}}}d Winny {{{dh}}}e magp{{{ie}}} t{{{uu}}} he{{{r}}} frend Sylvia, {{{dh}}}e robin. “{{{IE}}} hav tr{{{ie}}}d t{{{uu}}} k{{{ee}}}p it flat.” {{{J}}}ust {{{dh}}}en Winny sp{{{ie}}}d a spotted cat. {{{DH}}}e cat wo{{{s}}} scrat{{{ch}}}ing its t{{{oe}}}-næl{{{s}}} on a g{{{aa}}}rden h{{{oe}}}. Winny n{{{ue}}} {{{dh}}}is cat wo{{{s}}} he{{{r}}} foe. {{{B}}}ut Winny cr{{{ie}}}d, “{{{dh}}}e cat c{{{a}}}n’t cr{{{ee}}}p up to {{{dh}}}is soft nest ov dr{{{ie}}}d twig{{{s}}}!"

{{{F}}}{{{ie}}}nd and copy from {{{dh}}}e story

wo{{{s}}}

wu{{{r}}}d{{{s}}} with {{{ie}}} or {{{oe}}} in {{{dh}}}em

{{{N}}}æm and copy {{{dh}}}e pict{{{ue}}}r{{{s}}}

{{{H}}}av y{{{oo}}} s{{{ee}}}n a magpie? {{{R}}}{{{ie}}}t ab{{{ou}}}t it.

References[edit]

i.t.a. Correspondence Course, Instructional Course for Teachers on the Initial Teaching Alphabet, 1966. Available in ERIC (Education Resources Information Center), i.t.a. Correspondence Course, Instructional Course for Teachers on the Initial Teaching Alphabet.

  1. Lars Törnqvist, Pitman’s Initial Teaching Alphabet, Pitman’s Initial Teaching Alphabet alphabet chart.
  2. i.t.a. Correspondence Course, p. 52 of the PDF, p. 59 of the document.
  3. 3.0 3.1 The principles of spelling in i.t.a., page dj dʒ. Posted by InitialTeachingAlphabet in Facebook. The principles of spelling in i.t.a. dj dʒ. This is the same reference as i.t.a. Correspondence Course, page 52 of the PDF, page 59 in the document.
  4. The principles of spelling in i.t.a., page r я. Posted by InitialTeachingAlphabet in Facebook. The principles of spelling in i.t.a. r я. This is the same reference as i.t.a. Correspondence Course, page 51 of the PDF, page 58 in the document.
  5. 'i.t.a. Correspondence Course, p. 51 of the PDF, item (7).
  6. 'i.t.a. Correspondence Course, p. 53 of the PDF, item (16).
  7. i.t.a. Correspondence Course, p. 42.
  8. 8.0 8.1 [American] Initial Teaching Alphabet Foundation, The i.t.a. Chart.
  9. Wikipedia, Pronunciation of English ⟨a⟩ § TRAP-BATH split - North American accents.
  10. 10.0 10.1 Winnie the magpie, Australian Science and Technology Heritage Centre, available in Gallery.
  11. The Wee Web, Ladybird ITA Books
  12. {{{I}}}ndian tຜ fϵϵt and his hors. Posted by InitialTeachingAlphabet in Facebook. {{{I}}}ndian tຜ fϵϵt and his hors, page 15.
  13. 13.0 13.1 13.2 13.3 YouTube, Introduction to the Initial Teaching Alphabet(i.t.a.), @9 min 2 sec. Linked from What is i.t.a.? in i.t.a. Foundation website.

See also[edit]

External links[edit]