Taboo word

From Teflpedia

A taboo word is a word that certain people might find dangerous, holy, magic or shocking.

Because of their shock element, taboo words are often used in situations where people want to express strong emotions such as pain, anger, etc. by swearing.

Taboo language in general includes a wide variety of free speech issues such as hate speech, fighting words and sexual harassment.[1]

Problems for non-native speakers[edit]

The use of taboo words (also known as four-letter words) is very complicated and not to be recommended for foreign speakers, for a number of reasons:

  1. Many words and expressions do not translate identically into another language and consequently sound absurd if translated.
  2. To further complicate matters, even though some words will be swearwords in both English and the student's mother tongue, it is highly unlikely that the strength of the swearword will be the same in both languages, which could cause embarrassment for all concerned.
  3. The use of certain swearwords can give the impression the speaker is claiming membership of a particular social group and the existing members of that group may resent a foreign language speaker claiming such membership.
  4. Even if a foreign speaker works out exactly how to use the swearword in one social setting or particular situation that does not mean the word will be acceptable in other social settings.

Types of taboo words[edit]

In the following examples, the asterisk shows the ‘strength’ they have as regards being considered shocking.[2]

Taboo words can be divided into four groups:

  • those associated with religion, such as Jesus! **, Damn! * or Hell! *;
  • parts of the body, such as arse *** (BrE) or ass ** (AmE);
  • sexual activity, such as fuck *** or bastard **; and
  • the toilet, such as piss **, crap ** or shit ***
  • Ethnic slurs, such as chink ***, coon ***, slope *** nigger ****, etc

Swearwords and swearing[edit]

See main article swearword

The same taboo words can be used as swearwords or expletives, often, but not always, changing their original literal meaning: Jesus!, Fuck!, Shit!

It is important for EFL learners to recognise these words in order to understand if they are being insulted, etc., although the context is usually very clear!

Euphemisms[edit]

IPA vowels
æ ɑː
trap father - start
e
dress face square
ɪ ɪə
kit fleece near
ɒ əʊ ɔː
lot goat taught
ʊ ʊə
foot goose mature
juː jʊə
cute cure
ʌ ə ɜː
strut comma nurse
ɔɪ
price mouth choice

Some people use euphemisms to avoid seeming excessively rude: Fish!; Fiddlesticks!; Sugar!; Rats!; Thank goodness! (instead of Thank God!*);

Grammar[edit]

Taboo words are extremely flexible grammatically and can be used (often with a change of meaning) as adjectives, verbs, nouns, etc.: Fuck ***, but – It’s fucking hot! *** = It’s very hot!

As comedians like to point out, people sometimes use taboo words when referring to their friends ("How are you, you old bugger?" or "You lucky bastard!"), and seeming terms of endearment when threatening: "You talking to me, mate?"

Tmesis /ˈtmiːsɪs, ˈmiːsɪs/ or /təˈmiːsɪs/ consists in inserting a word in the middle of another. In English there are two words which are usually inserted in this way: fucking and bloody. The insertion must be done right before the stressed syllable: ‘abso-bloody-lutely’, ‘ri-fucking-diculous’.

References[edit]

  1. Pinker, Steven. The Stuff of Thought. Allen Lane, 2007. ISBN 978-0-713-99741-5
  2. Swan, Michael. Practical English Usage Oxford University Press 1980 ISBN 0-19-431197 x

See also[edit]

External links[edit]