Stop is an ambitransitive verb that can be used intransitively, e.g. "he stopped", or transitively, e.g. "he stopped work".
Stop is a catenative verb that catenates with a to-infinitive but not a bare infinitive. The "stop+gerund" form (e.g. "We stopped driving") is different semantically to the "stop+to-infinitive form (e.g. "We stopped to have a rest") - indeed these can be combined - "we stopped driving to have a rest" (but not *"we stopped to have a rest driving"). Additionally, the gerund form can refer to a habit e.g. "I stopped smoking", or to a shorter continuous activity, e.g. "I stopped driving".
- "I stopped smoking". CCQ: In the beginning, did I smoke? Yes. Do I smoke now? No.
- "We stopped to smoke". CCQ: In the beginning, was I smoking? No. Did I smoke afterwards? Yes.
Also, "my boss stopped me from making a big mistake" -> "my boss stopped me making a big mistake" is ditransitive.
[This explanation could perhaps be improved].
Stop has a French cognate stopper (although arrêter is usually preferred, especially in formal French). Unusually, the French word is derived from the English rather than the other way round. With the prevalence of stop signs, it's also entered other languages as well.