So-called “short” and “long” vowels

From Teflpedia

In English spelling each vowel letter has two main sounds. The so-called “short” vowel (or short sound of the vowel) is a monophthong and the so-called “long” vowel (or long sound of the vowel) is a diphthong (considering /iː/ as [ij] and /uː/ as [uw]).

A E I O U
Short sound trap /æ/ dress /e/ kit /ɪ/ lot /ɒ/ strut /ʌ/
Long sound or "name sound" face /eɪ/ theme /iː/ price /aɪ/ bone /əʊ/ cute /juː/, flute /uː/, produce /juː,BrEAmE/

When decoding written words we consider "a" as in bath and "o" as in cloth to be short sounds, or, more precisely, to have short vowel spelling, because /ɑː/ and /ɔː/ are long sounds. The table used for reading is as follows.

A E I O U
Short vowel spelling trap /æ/, bath /æ,AmE ɑːBrE/ dress /e/ kit /ɪ/ lot /ɒ/, cloth /ɒ,BrE ɔːAmE/ strut /ʌ/
Long vowel spelling face /eɪ/ theme /iː/ price /aɪ/ bone /əʊ/ cute /juː/, flute /uː/, produce /juː,BrEAmE/

“Short” vowel spelling uses double consonants.

“Long” vowel spelling uses magic e.

Short and long vowel spelling before R[edit]

A E I O U
Normal short sound (short vowel spelling) carry /æ/ cherry /e/ mirror /ɪ/ torrid /ɒ,BrE ɔːAmE/ hurry /ʌ,BrE ɜːAmE/
Rhotic monophthong (short vowel spelling) start /ɑː/ verb /ɜː/ girl /ɜː/ north /ɔː/ nurse /ɜː/
Rhotic diphthong (long vowel spelling) square /eə/ here /ɪə/ fire /aɪə/ store /ɔː/ cure /jʊə/, sure /ʊə,AmE BrE ɔːBrE/, lure /jʊə,BrE ʊəAmE BrE/

See also[edit]

This table has links to So-called “short V” and So-called “long V” where V is a vowel letter.

“Short” “Long” Long rhotic monophthong
“Short” vowel spelling
Rhotic diphthong
“Long” vowel spelling
Short monophtong
A /æ/ trap /eɪ/ face /ɑː/ start /eə/ square /æ/ carry
E /e/ dress /iː/ we /ɜː/ term /ɪə/ here /e/ cherry
I /ɪ/ kit /aɪ/ price /ɜː/ girl /aɪə/ fire /ɪ/ mirror
O /ɒ/ lot /əʊ/ hope /ɔː/ north /ɔː/ store /ɒ,BrE ɔːAmE/ torrid
U /ʌ/ strut /juː/ cute /ɜː/ nurse /jʊə/ cure /ʌ,BrE ɜːAmE/ hurry