Pronunciation and decoding exercises: /s/ vs /z/

From Teflpedia

z

his /hɪz/

s

this /ðɪs/

The only difference betwen /s/ and /z/ is that /s/ is unvoiced and /z/ is voiced. See Voiced and unvoiced sounds.

The letter "s" is used to spell most words with /z/ and many words with /s/. Many students who are able to pronounce correctly both sounds may struggle with decoding writen words. For example, they may not be aware that goose doesn't rhyme with choose.

More detail can be seen in Advanced decoding exercises: /s/ vs /z/.

/s/[edit]

IPA vowels
æ ɑː
trap father - start
e
dress face square
ɪ ɪə
kit fleece near
ɒ əʊ ɔː
lot goat taught
ʊ ʊə
foot goose mature
juː jʊə
cute cure
ʌ ə ɜː
strut comma nurse
ɔɪ
price mouth choice
IPA consonants
Normal sound: /b, d, f, g, h, k, l, m, n, p, r, s, t, v, w, z/
 ʃ  ŋ
show church sing
ʒ  j 
usual judge you
θ ð s
think that see
IPA Stress
ˈ Primary stress
hotel /həʊˈtel/
ˌ Secondary stress
understand
/ˌʌndərˈstænd/
IPA Syllabification
. nitrate /ˈnaɪ.treɪt/, night-rate /ˈnaɪt.reɪt/
  • with initial /s/:
  • with "c": ceiling - cent - cinema - city
  • with "s": sad - sale - same - say - scar - school - sea - seat - second - see - sell - send - sense - service - set - several - side - sign - since - sing - sink - sit - ski - sky - sleep - small - smile - sneeze - soap - social - some - song - soon - sort - sound - speak - spend - squeeze - staff - stand - start - stay - stop - strong - study - suggest - suit - sun - swim - swing - symbol - system
  • with "sc": scene - scent - science
  • with final /s/:
  • with "ce": advice - choice - dance - nice - once - twice
  • with "s": bus - gas - this - yes
as morpheme “-s” for words ending in /f/, /k/, /p/, /t/, and /θ/:
  • plurals: chiefs - ducks - cups - students - months
  • third person singular: laughs - thinks - helps - gets
  • possessives: staff's - Mike's - troop's - Egypt's - Edith's
  • with "se": dense - goose - house - loose - mouse - promise - release - tense
  • with "ss": boss - class - kiss - mass - miss
  • in mid-position:
  • with "c": cancel - concern - decide - receive - recent - society
  • with "s": analysis - awesome - basic - fantasy - nuisance
  • with "ss": assign - assume - lesson - missing - necessary - possible
  • homophones: C - sea - see; cell - sell; cent - scent - sent; cite - site - sight; scene - seen;

/z/[edit]

  • with initial /z/: zapping - zebra - zoo;
  • with final /z/:
  • with "s": as - does - has - his - is - was
morpheme “-s”
  • plurals: bugs - churches - dens - keys - phones - shoes - toys
  • third person singular: comes - drives - gives - knows - tells
  • possessives: Alice's - Bob's - Carol's - Dave's - Ethiopia's - Finland's - Germany's
  • with "se": advise - browse - cheese - choose - lose - please - these - use - wise
  • with "zz": buzz - jazz
  • with "ze": breeze - freeze - sneeze
  • in mid-position:
  • with "s": busy - cousin - desert - easy - houses - music - poison - present - president - prison - reason - visit
  • with "ss": dessert - scissors
  • with "z": crazy - lazy - razor
  • with "zz": dizzy
  • homophones: browse - brows; nose - knows; size - sighs

Minimal pairs[edit]

At the beginning of the word[edit]

  • sue - zoo;

In mid position[edit]

  • lacy - lazy; precedent - president; racer - razor;

At the end of the word[edit]

  • advice - advise; bus - buzz; face - phase; hiss - his; grace - graze; loose - lose; price - prize; race - raise; rice - rise;
  • second word is plural: ace - A's; arse - R's; base - bays; case - K's; cease - seas, C's; decrease - decrees; dense - dens; dose - doughs; else - L's; force - fours; ice - eyes, I's; Joyce - joys; juice - Jews; lice - lies; niece - knees; once - ones; peace, piece - peas, P's; race - rays; since - sins; spice - spies; tense - tens; trace - trays; versus - verses;
  • second word is third person singular: dice - dies; false - falls; gross - grows; lice - lies; pace - pays; place - plays; sacrifice - sacrifies; scarce - scares;
  • Only in BrE: brass - bras
  • Only in AmE: loss - laws

Heteronyms[edit]

  • Noun is pronounced with /s/, verb is pronouced with /z/: abuse - excuse - house - use
  • close (adj.) - close (v.)

See also next section.

Devoicing[edit]

When two words are often pronounced together one of their consonants may influence the other. For example voiced /z/ and unvoiced /t/ become /s t/ where /z/ is devoiced.

  • The verb suppose normally is /səˈpəʊz/ and its past tense normally is /səˈpəʊzd/. However suppose to and supposed to often are devoiced as /səˈpəʊs tə/ and /səˈpəʊst tə/.[1]
  • Has to can be pronounced /hæs tə/.[2]
  • Care should be taken to distinguish between "used to" and the past tense of the verb "to use": I used to /juːst tə/ use /juːz/ a laptop - He used /juːzd/ his laptop. - He didn't use /juːz/ his new shoes - He used to /juːst tə/ miss the last bus. - I used to /juːst tə/ go there to dance.
  • The word newspaper would normally be pronounced like news and paper /ˈnjuːzpeɪpər/ or /ˈnuːzpeɪpər/. Due to devoicing it can also be pronounced /ˈnjuːspeɪpər/ or /ˈnuːspeɪpər/.

Some curious contrasts[edit]

The first word is pronounced with /s/ and the second with /z/.

  • abusive - abuser; assess - possess; abyss - abysmal; crisis /ˈkraɪsɪs/ - crises /ˈkraɪsiːz/; divisive - divisor; exhibition /ˌeksɪˈbɪʃən/ - exhibit /ɪɡˈzɪbɪt/; it's - he's, she's; louse - lousy;
These words don't rhyme
  • goose - choose; geese - cheese; promise /ˈprɒmɪs/ - compromise /ˈkɒmprəmaɪz/; Arkansas /ɑrːkənˌsɔː/ - Kansas /ˈkænzəs/; lease - please; purpose - pose;

Variant pronunciations[edit]

/s/ or /z/

  • opposite - transaction

/s/AmE or /z/BrE

  • blouse - erase

Anticipated pronunciation difficulties depending on L1[edit]

Spanish[edit]

Most Spanish speakers cannot pronounce the /z/ sound. They won't even hear the difference between /s/ and /z/. See IPA phoneme /z/#Spanish L1.

Other Romance languages[edit]

In most Romance languages "s" between vowels is pronounced [z]. For example Portuguese básico is pronounced [ˈbaziku], French basique is [bazik] and Italian basico is [ˈbaziko].

References[edit]

  1. John C. Wells. close, 27 August 2012. See also comments by Beatrice Portinary on 27 August 2012 at 10:55, and Lazar Taxon at 19:31 and 22:01.
  2. John C. Wells. close, 27 August 2012. Comment by John Wells on 27 August 2012 at 20:2.

See also[edit]

External links[edit]