Present Perfect: Form
For the present perfect we use the past participle (third form) of the verb with the present simple of the primary verb "have". With regular verbs, the third form is identical to the Past Simple: Form.
I have played, you have worked hard, Maria has announced her engagement.
Some verbs have irregular third forms, e.g: have – had, come – come, These must simply be learnt.
In informal writing, HAVE is often contracted. In speech, apart from formal oratory or to give emphasis, it is normally weakened or elided:
I have worked, I’ve worked. - /aɪhǝvwɜːkt, aɪjǝvwɜːkt, aɪvwɜːkt/
he has worked, he’s worked. - /hiːhǝzwɜːkt, hiːjǝzwɜːkt, hiːzwɜːkt/
Negative forms and contractions
I/you/we/they have not worked, I/you/we/they haven’t worked, I’ve/you’ve/they’ve not worked,
she has not worked, she hasn’t worked she’s not worked
Interrogative forms (with S-V inversion)
have I/you/we/they worked?
has she worked?
Except in formal speech and writing, the contracted forms are used in negative questions.
haven’t I/you/we/they worked? (have I/you/we/they not worked?)
hasn’t she worked? (has she not worked?)
Have is used alone to replace the full perfect form in:
|Question tags:||He’s worked hard, hasn’t he?|
|Short answers:||Has Petra arrived yet? - Yes, she has. / No, she hasn’t.|
|Contracted questions:||Mary has lived in Germany. Has Alan?|
|Contracted follow-up questions:||I have really enjoyed this weather. - Have you?|
|(Dis)agreement comments:||They’ve played well today. - Yes they have./No, they haven’t.|