In English there are three types of polarity particles;
- Independent polarity particles, yes (positive) and no (negative). In traditional grammar these are lumped with adverbs, but they largely differ from prototypical adverbs in their properties.
- A dependent polarity particle, not. Logically, an affirmative polarity particle exists but is always a null morpheme.
- A morphemic polarity particle, negative n-.
Not is also traditionally analysed as an adverb, but is somewhat different from other adverbs. Though it is a prefix rather than a word, negative n- can also be considered a polarity particle.
Historically, English had additional polarity particles. In colloquial speech, the words aye and yea are also used positively, and the word nay negatively.