From Teflpedia

The patient (/peɪʃʌnt/) also called the target or undergoer, is the participant of a situation upon whom an action is carried out.[1]

  • "The dog bit the man", the man is the patient
  • The man was bitten by the dog, the man is still the patient.

The patient is typically the object within an active voice sentence, but typically the subject of a passive voice sentence.

Compare agent and theme.

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