International Phonetic Alphabet
The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) is the standardised system of phonetic symbols maintained by the International Phonetic Association (also, confusingly, IPA) and used by linguists worldwide to transcribe the speech sounds from all known spoken languages, including English, which can be transcribed using a limited subset of these.
Symbols and chart[edit | edit source]
The symbols used are based on those from the Latin and Greek alphabets. Generally consonant letters (except /y/) and derived symbols represent consonant sounds, whereas vowel letters (plus /y/) represent vowel sounds. Each symbol represents a unique sound such that the alphabetic principle is strictly followed.
Each sound is allocated an IPA number.
The following is a standard chart for sounds in any language. Each symbol represents a precise sound.
IPA for English phonemes[edit | edit source]
Every language needs an adaptation of the chart in the previous section for its phonemes. For example intervocalic English phoneme /t/ is represented in the table by the symbols [t], [ʔ] and [ɾ], which describe the "t" sound used in different dialects. /t/ on the other hand, is any sound perceived by English speakers as being the same as in better [ˈbɛtəɹ, ˈbɛʔə, ˈbɛɾəɹ] which in broad or phonemic notation is /ˈbetər/.
- IPA vowel phonemes for Received Pronunciation
|fleece - happy||kit||foot||goose||near||face|
|dress||comma - letter||nurse||thought
north - force
|trap||strut||bath - start
|lot - cloth||square||price||mouth|
- IPA vowel phonemes for General American
In this table we use /oʊ/ instead of /əʊ/ and /ɛ/ instead of /e/, as is customary in American dictionaries. However in Teflpedia we use /əʊ/ and /e/ for uniformity. Most American Dictionaries prefer /ɑ, ɜ, i, ɔ, u/ instead of /ɑː, ɜː, iː, ɔː, uː/.
|fleece - happy||kit - near||foot - cure||goose||face|
|dress - square||comma - letter||nurse||thought - cloth
north - force
|trap - bath||strut||start - palm - lot||price||mouth|
- IPA consonant phonemes
Pedagogy[edit | edit source]
References[edit | edit source]