Independent verb

From Teflpedia

An independent verb is a verb that is used without an auxiliary verb.

In English there are only two independent verbs, and one of those is seldom employed as such. The most common one is "be", for example "you are a teacher". Be cannot usually take "do" as an auxiliary verb, except in a command in the imperative mood (e.g. "Do be quiet, children!"). We can’t say *"You do be a teacher."

"Have" can also be used independently, as independent have. Usually however "Have" employs do support.

In the case of hidden do, such as "I eat pizza", it can be argued that this is not independent, as the auxiliary is hiding, and reveals itself in the question ("Do you eat pizza?"), negative ("I don’t eat pizza"), emphatic ("I do eat pizza"), and short answer forms ("Yes, I do"/"No, I don’t").