An independent polarity particle is a polarity particle that lacks syntactic dependency.
There are two main independent polarity particles in English; yes, and no.
Yes expresses affirmative answers, whilst no expresses negative answers.
Syntactically, these a pro-forms for whole clauses. For example, in response to the question "do you eat fish?", the answer no is equivalent to the full clause I don’t eat fish.
Contrast dependent polarity particle.