From Teflpedia

The sequence "ia" normally is part of two syllables (as in "material" or "bias") or the "i" modifies the sound of the previous letter as in "social". This page sets out some words teachers can use to help their students become more aware of how they can sound out more correctly the different sounds corresponding to words containing "ia".

Modified consonant + "ia"[edit | edit source]

The letters "c", "s" and "t" often change their sound when followed by an "i".

  • "cia" as /ʃə/: commercial, crucial, especially, financial, musician, official, politician, Patricia, racial, social, special
  • "sia" as /ʃə/: controversial
  • "ssia" as /ʃə/: Russia
  • "tia" as /ʃə/: essential, initial, initiative, potential, presidential, substantial
  • "cia" as /ʃiːeɪ/: appreciate, appreciation
  • "tia" as /ʃiːeɪ/: negotiate, negotiation
  • "cia" as /ʃiːeɪ/ or /siːeɪ/: associate, asociation
  • "sia" as /ʒə/ or /ʃə/: Malaysia, Tunisia
  • "sia" as /ʒə, ʃə/ or /ziːə/: Indonesia

As /ɪ/[edit | edit source]

  • carriage, marriage

As /jə/[edit | edit source]

  • As /jə/: Australia, Virginia, William
  • As /jə/ or /iːə/: California, Pennsylvania

As /ə/[edit | edit source]

  • Georgia, parliament

Two syllables[edit | edit source]

  • /aɪə/: bias, Brian, dialogue/dialog,AmE diamond, giant, liability, reliable, trial
  • /aɪæ/: Diana, Diane
  • /iːæ/: Indiana, Louisiana, maniac, piano
  • /iːeɪ/: variation
  • /iːɪ/: foliage
  • /iːə/
  • Ending in "ia": Austria, Bolivia, Bulgaria, Cynthia, Colombia, India, mania, Maria, Syria, Zambia
  • Other: brilliant, civilian, familiar, historian, immediate, industrial, material, variable
  • /aɪə/ or /iːə/: via

Heteronyms[edit | edit source]

  • appropriate /əˈprəʊpriːeɪt/ (v.) /əˈprəʊpriːət/ (adj.)

Variant pronunciations[edit | edit source]

  • "cia" as /ʃiːeɪ/ or /siːeɪ/: associate, asociation
  • "sia" as /ʒə/ or /ʃə/: Malaysia, Tunisia
  • "sia" as /ʒə, ʃə/ or /ziːə/: Indonesia
  • "ia" as /aɪə/ or /iːə/: via
  • "ia" as /jə/ or /iːə/: California, Pennsylvania

References[edit | edit source]