IPA phoneme /ɒ/
There are dictionaries of American English (such as Random House Dictionary) that actually use /ɒ/ as it is explained in this article: for "lot" and "stop", but not for "cloth" and "long" /lɒt, stɒp, klɔːθ, lɔːŋ/, and their actual meaning is /lɑːt, stɑːp, klɔːθ, lɔːŋ/. "Sorry" and "forest" are normally pronounced /sɑːriː/ and /fɔːrɪst/. Random House Dictionary represents them as /ˈsɒri, ˈsɔri/ and /ˈfɔrɪst, ˈfɒrɪst/, with the preferred pronunciations swapped.
The remainder of this article is valid both for Received Pronunciation and General American (i.e. "lot" and "stop" are documented, "cloth" and "long", are not). See Phoneme /ɒ/ in Received Pronunciation and Phoneme /ɑː/ in General American for more examples. The cases of "sorry" and "forest" are also explained in this article.
Some common words which practice the pronunciation of /ɒ/ include the following:
- with "o": body - box - follow - got - hot - involve - job - lot - model - obvious - policy - possible - probably - problem - product - shop - stop - top
- with "a": quality - restaurant - wad - wander - want - wash - watch
/ɒ/ is always followed by one or more consonants. In derived words a single consonant is usually doubled (hop, hopping; rot, rotten).
|"o" followed by a single consonant||"o" followed by a double consonant||"o" followed by two or more different consonants|
|/ɒ/||body, model, product||common, follow, possible||contact, involve, problem|
|/əʊ/||local, open, social||grossest, roller||only, hostess, program|
- knowledge /ˈnɒlɪdʒ/
- knot - not
According to Wikipedia only 5 words are pronounced /ɑːr/ in General American and /ɒr/ in Received Pronunciation.
- with "o": borrow - morrow (shortening of "tomorrow") - sorrow - sorry - tomorrow
In all other cases /ɒr/BrE is /ɔːr/AmE. However these words are pronounced /ɑːr/ in regional American English (parts of the East Coast, including New York City, Long Island, northern New Jersey, Philadelphia, Rhode Island, and the Carolinas).
- with "o": foreign, forest, horror, orange
- with "a": warrant, warranty
- with "au": laurel
- See for example Dictionary.com Unabridged, based on the Random House Dictionary.
- Wikipedia, English-language vowel changes before historic /r/ § Historic "short o" before intervocalic R. Retreived 14 May 2015.
- Lexical sets
- Pronunciation exercises: /ɒ/ vs /ɔː/
- Pronunciation exercises: /əʊ/ vs /ɒ/
- Pronunciation exercises: /ʌ/ vs /ɒ/