Most common, basic everyday English vocabulary is of Germanic origin. English also has a large number of loanwords derived from French and Latin. This can lead to situations where there are two words for the same thing, e.g. Germanic "to come back" v. French "to return". Often the Germanic word is used more in spoken English and the French word in written English.
EFL learners must learn - or acquire - English vocabulary.
English spelling is how the language is spelt.