From Teflpedia
IPA vowels
æ ɑː
trap father - start
dress face square
ɪ ɪə
kit fleece near
ɒ əʊ ɔː
lot goat taught
ʊ ʊə
foot goose mature
juː jʊə
cute cure
ʌ ə ɜː
strut comma nurse
price mouth choice
IPA consonants
Normal sound: /b, d, f, g, h, k, l, m, n, p, r, s, t, v, w, z/
 ʃ  ŋ
show church sing
ʒ  j 
usual judge you
θ ð s
think that see
IPA Stress
ˈ Primary stress
hotel /həʊˈtel/
ˌ Secondary stress
IPA Syllabification
. nitrate /ˈnaɪ.treɪt/, night-rate /ˈnaɪt.reɪt/

A digraph is a combination of two letters used to represent one speech sound, that is a vowel or consonant. It can be considered as a two-letter phonogram.



  • "ai" /eɪ/: afraid - aid - brain - chain - contain - detail - explain - fail - gain - mail - main - pain - rain - train - wait
  • "ay" /eɪ/: always - away - day - delay - display - maybe - okay - pay - pray - play - say - stay - today - way
  • "au" /ɔː/: audience - author - autumn - caught - cause - daughter - fault - laundry - naughty - pause - taught
  • "aw" /ɔː/: awful - draw - drawer - law - lawyer - raw - withdraw
  • "ee" /iː/: agree - between - feel - free - keep - meet - need - see - seem - week
  • "ow" /aʊ/: allow - brown - cow - crown - down - flower - how - now - power (also /əʊ/ grow - know - low)
  • "oo" /uː/: boot - choose - cool - fool - loose - moon - pool - root - school - soon - tool (also /ʊ/ book - good - foot)

Magic e[edit]

Magic e can be thought of as part of a discontinuous digraph:[1] aCe, eCe, iCe, oCe and uCe, where C is a consonant.

  • cake - complete - like - home - cute - include


  • "ch" / tʃ/ as in much, child and also /k/ as in chemistry, psychology
  • "ng" /ŋ/ as in song, thing
  • "ph" /f/ as in phase, graph
  • "sh" /ʃ/ as in fish, ship
  • "ss" /s/ as in class, essay, princess
  • "th" /θ/ as in think, path and also /ð/ as in then, breathe
  • "zh" is sometimes used as in Dr. Zhivago. See IPA phoneme /ʒ/.


An IPA digraph is a combination of two IPA phonetic symbols that is regarded as a single phoneme.

The following are the IPA digraphs for English phonemes

  • dʒ tʃ aɪ aʊ eə eɪ ɪə ɔɪ əʊ ʊə

If the IPA long-vowel symbol is counted, we can add the following digraphs

  • ɑː iː ɔː uː ɜː

IPA phonetic sequence /juː/ is not regarded as a trigraph, but it is analized as /j/ and /uː/.


See also[edit]