Decoding the letter D

From Teflpedia

soldier
/ˈsəʊldʒər/

t

helped
/helpt/

d

good
/gʊd/

IPA vowels
æ ɑː
trap father - start
e
dress face square
ɪ ɪə
kit fleece near
ɒ əʊ ɔː
lot goat taught
ʊ ʊə
foot goose mature
juː jʊə
cute cure
ʌ ə ɜː
strut comma nurse
ɔɪ
price mouth choice
IPA consonants
Normal sound: /b, d, f, g, h, k, l, m, n, p, r, s, t, v, w, z/
 ʃ  ŋ
show church sing
ʒ  j 
usual judge you
θ ð s
think that see
IPA Stress
ˈ Primary stress
hotel /həʊˈtel/
ˌ Secondary stress
understand
/ˌʌndərˈstænd/
IPA Syllabification
. nitrate /ˈnaɪ.treɪt/, night-rate /ˈnaɪt.reɪt/

The letter D, lowercase d (pronounced /diː/) normally represents IPA phoneme /d/. For examples see IPA phoneme /d/.

As /t/[edit]

Main article: Past tense pronunciation

In the regular past tense of verbs ending in unvoiced consonants excluding /t/, the suffix "-ed" sounds /t/.

Examples:

  • /f/: laughed /lɑːft/BrE /læft/AmE
  • /k/: worked /wɜːrkt/
  • /p/: helped /helpt/
  • /s/: placed /pleɪst/
  • /ʃ/: wished /wɪʃt/
  • /tʃ/: reached /riːtʃt/
  • /θ/: frothed /frɒθt/BrE /frɔːθt/AmE.

In some consonant clusters the previous consonant may be elided.

  • asked /ɑːskt/BrE or /ɑːst/BrE - /æskt/AmE or /æst/AmE
  • jumped /dʒʌmpt/ or /dʒʌmt/

As /dʒ/[edit]

See also IPA phoneme /dʒ/

  • "di" as /dʒə/: soldier
  • "dg" as /dʒ/: bridge - budget - edge - judge - knowledge
  • "dj" as /dʒ/: adjacent - adjective - adjust
  • "du" as /dʒuː/ or /dʒʊ/: education - gradual - graduate - individual - schedule /ˈskedʒuːl/AmE /ˈʃedjuːl/BrE
  • "du" as /dʒə/: procedure

Silent "d"[edit]

  • handkerchief /ˈhæŋkərtʃɪf, ˈhæŋkərtʃiːf/ - handsome - sandwich /ˈsænwɪtʃ, ˈsænwɪdʒ, ˈsændwɪtʃ, ˈsændwɪdʒ/ - thousandth - Wednesday - Windsor
  • grandfather - grandmother - granddaughter - grandson

See also[edit]