Decoding exercises: "ou"

From Teflpedia

ʌ

young /jʌŋ/

group /gruːp/

out /aʊt/

Together with the article on decoding difficulties, this page sets out some common (or not...) words teachers can use to help their students become more aware of how they can sound out more correctly the different sounds corresponding to words containing "ou".

The sequence "ou" is sounded out as /aʊ/ in many words. Normally the phrase “the 'ou' [pronounced /əʊˈjuː/] sound” refers to /aʊ/.[1] However there are many exceptions.

IPA vowels
æ ɑː
trap father - start
e
dress face square
ɪ ɪə
kit fleece near
ɒ əʊ ɔː
lot goat taught
ʊ ʊə
foot goose mature
juː jʊə
cute cure
ʌ ə ɜː
strut comma nurse
ɔɪ
price mouth choice
IPA consonants
Normal sound: /b, d, f, g, h, k, l, m, n, p, r, s, t, v, w, z/
 ʃ  ŋ
show church sing
ʒ  j 
usual judge you
θ ð s
think that see
IPA Stress
ˈ Primary stress
hotel /həʊˈtel/
ˌ Secondary stress
understand
/ˌʌndərˈstænd/
IPA Syllabification
. nitrate /ˈnaɪ.treɪt/, night-rate /ˈnaɪt.reɪt/

/aʊ/[edit]

  • /aʊ/: about - account - amount - announce - around - background - blouse - bound - boundary - cloud - compound - council - counsel - count - county - discount - doubt - encounter - flounder - foul - found - founder - ground - house - loud - mount - mountain - mouse - mouth - noun - out - outcome - output - pound - profound - proud - round - scout - shout - sound - south - surround - thousand - trout - wound (verb wind)
  • /aʊə/: flour - hour - our (unstressed /ɑːr/) - sour

/uː/[edit]

  • cantaloupeBrE - coupon - group - rouge - route - soup - toucan - through - wound (injure, v. & n.) - you - youth

/ʊ/[edit]

  • could - should - would

/ʌ/[edit]

  • country - couple - cousin - double - southern - touch - trouble - young
  • with "ough": enough - rough - tough

/ʌ/ or /ɜː/[edit]

The following words are pronounced with /ʌr/ in British English and /ɜːr/ in American English. See also IPA phoneme /ɜː/ § /ɜː/ and /ʌ/.

  • courage - nourish

/ɜː/[edit]

  • courteous - journalist - journey

/əʊ/[edit]

  • although - boulder - cantaloupeAmE - dough - shoulder - soul - thoroughAmE - though

/ɔː/[edit]

  • bought - brought - course - court - fought - four - ought - pour - sought - source - thought - your
  • tour: Although the dictionary pronunciation of this word is /tʊər/[2] many native speakers actually say /tɔ:r/. Likewise, dour can be pronounced /dʊər/ or /ˈdaʊər/.[3]

/ə/[edit]

  • thoroughBrE
  • thoroughly
  • With "ous": anxious - continuous - curious - dangerous - enormous - famous - nervous - numerous - obvious - previous - religious - serious - various
  • With "our",BrE "or"AmE: behaviour - colour - favour - favourite - harbour - honour - humour (but humorist) - labour - neighbour

/ɒ/[edit]

  • cough /kɒf,BrE kɔːfAmE/
  • Gloucester /ˈɡlɒstər, ˈɡlɔːstərAmE/

/ʊə/[edit]

  • Missouri

Two different syllables[edit]

  • /əʊ ə/: Antinous (favourite of Roman emperor Hadrian)

Variant pronunciations[edit]

  • /ə,BrE əʊAmE/: borough - thorough
  • /uː,BrE, əʊAmE/: cantaloupe
  • route /ruːt/, also /raʊt/AmE

Homophones[edit]

  • /aʊ/: aloud - allowed; council - counsel;
  • /aʊə/: flour - flower; our - hour;
  • /uː/: route - root;
  • /ʊ/: would - wood;
  • our /ɑːr, ˈaʊər/ - are /ər, ɑːr/

Non-rhotic accents only

  • /ɔː/court - caught; source - sauce

Minimal pairs[edit]

  • bought - boat; dough - though; foul - full; mouse - moose/mousse; noun - nun/none

Heteronyms[edit]

  • wound: injury /wuːnd/ - past tense of wind /waʊnd/

Spanish L1[edit]

References[edit]

  1. YouTube, ou words
  2. tour Collins Dictionaries. Retrieved 21st January 2013.
  3. dour Collins Dictionaries. Retrieved 21st January 2013.

See also[edit]

External links[edit]