Decoding exercises: "io"
The sequence "io" normally is part of two syllables (as in "sociology") or the "i" modifies the sound of the previous letter as in "action". This page sets out some words teachers can use to help their students become more aware of how they can sound out more correctly the different sounds corresponding to words containing "io".
Modified "c", "s", "t" + "io"
The letters "c", "s" and "t" often change their sound when followed by an "i".
- "cio" as /ʃə/: suspicion
- "cio" as /ʃə/ or /ʒə/AmE: coercion
- as /ʒə/: conclusion, confusion, decision, division, explosion, occasion, occasional, precision, provision, television, vision, visionary
- as /ʃə/: compulsion, extension, pension, propulsion, revulsion, tension, torsion
- "ssio" as /ʃə/: admission, aggression, compassion, compassionate, confession, depression, discussion, mission, missionary, profession
- as /ʃə/: action, addition, additional, condition, education, function, functional, information, nation, organization, position, relation, situation, tradition, traditional
- as /ʃə/ or /ʃ/: national
- as /tʃə/: question, suggestion
- as /ʃə/ or /tʃə/: attention, intention, mention
- as /ʒə/: equation
- as /ʃiːəʊ/: ratio
Unmodified "c", "s", "t" + "io"
- "cio" as /siːəʊ/: nuncio, sociocultural
- "cio" as /siːɒ/: sociology
- "cio" as /siːə/: sociological
- "sio" as /ziːəʊ/: physiotherapy
- "sio" as /ziːɒ/: anaesthesiology,BrE anesthesiology,AmE physiology
- "tio" as /tiːə/: bastion
- /aɪɒ/: biology
- /aɪɒ,BrE aɪɔːAmE/: priority
- /aɪəʊ/: Ohio
- /aɪə/: Iowa, lion, prior, violence
- /iːəʊ/: cardio, cardiovascular, Ethiopia, studio
- /iːɒ/: cardiology
- /iːə/: champion, criterion, interior, period, radio, senior, union
- /ʃiːɒ, siːɒ/: glaciology
- "ious" as /iːəs/: curious, obvious, previous, serious, various
- "ious" as /əs/: anxious, religious
- "cious" as /ʃəs/: atrocious, audacious, auspicious, conscious, delicious, malicious, precious, suspicious