Decoding exercises: "ia"

From Teflpedia

The sequence "ia" normally is part of two syllables (as in "material" or "bias") or the "i" modifies the sound of the previous letter as in "social". This page sets out some words teachers can use to help their students become more aware of how they can sound out more correctly the different sounds corresponding to words containing "ia".

Modified consonant + "ia"[edit]

The letters "c", "s" and "t" often change their sound when followed by an "i".

  • "cia" as /ʃə/: commercial, crucial, especially, financial, musician, official, politician, Patricia, racial, social, special
  • "sia" as /ʃə/: controversial
  • "ssia" as /ʃə/: Russia
  • "tia" as /ʃə/: essential, initial, initiative, potential, presidential, substantial
  • "cia" as /ʃiːeɪ/: appreciate, appreciation
  • "tia" as /ʃiːeɪ/: negotiate, negotiation
  • "cia" as /ʃiːeɪ/ or /siːeɪ/: associate, asociation
  • "sia" as /ʒə/ or /ʃə/: Malaysia, Tunisia
  • "sia" as /ʒə, ʃə/ or /ziːə/: Indonesia

As /ɪ/[edit]

  • carriage, marriage

As /jə/[edit]

  • As /jə/: Australia, Virginia, William
  • As /jə/ or /iːə/: California, Pennsylvania

As /ə/[edit]

  • Georgia, parliament

Two syllables[edit]

  • /aɪə/: bias, Brian, dialogue/dialog,AmE diamond, giant, liability, reliable, trial
  • /aɪæ/: Diana, Diane
  • /iːæ/: Indiana, Louisiana, maniac, piano
  • /iːeɪ/: variation
  • /iːɪ/: foliage
  • /iːə/
  • Ending in "ia": Austria, Bolivia, Bulgaria, Cynthia, Colombia, India, mania, Maria, Syria, Zambia
  • Other: brilliant, civilian, familiar, historian, immediate, industrial, material, variable
  • /aɪə/ or /iːə/: via


  • appropriate /əˈprəʊpriːeɪt/ (v.) /əˈprəʊpriːət/ (adj.)

Variant pronunciations[edit]

  • "cia" as /ʃiːeɪ/ or /siːeɪ/: associate, asociation
  • "sia" as /ʒə/ or /ʃə/: Malaysia, Tunisia
  • "sia" as /ʒə, ʃə/ or /ziːə/: Indonesia
  • "ia" as /aɪə/ or /iːə/: via
  • "ia" as /jə/ or /iːə/: California, Pennsylvania


See also[edit]

External links[edit]