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The common case is a way to describe grammatical case for nouns and pronouns that can be either nominative or accusative without any inflection. Note, however that this can’t be genitive or reflexive, meaning that its classification as “common" is questionable and perhaps dual case would be a better name for it.
In English, all nouns belong to this common case when used as a subject or object. The personal pronouns you, it and one are also common. The remaining personal pronouns distinguish the nominative case (I, he, she, we, they) from the accusative case (me, him, her, us, them), or the genitive case (my, your, his, her, its, our, their; mine, yours, his, hers, its, ours, theirs). The wh- word whom also marks accusative case, though who is now common.