As a result v. as a result of

From Teflpedia

As a result and as a result of both express cause and effect but have opposite meanings, which is often confusing for students:

  • "As a result" means "so".
  • "As a result of" means "because of" - additionally it is required to be followed by a noun e.g. a gerund or a noun phrase.

For example:

  • "The students were late, as a result they were punished".
  • "As a result of being late, the students were punished."
  • "The students were punished as a result of being late."
  • "As a result of their tardiness, the students were punished."
  • "The students were punished as a result of their tardiness."